The Leadership Quarterly

  • Motivational or dispositional? The type of inference shapes the effectiveness of leader anger expressions
    Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Bo Shao, Lu Wang, Herman H.M. Tse

    Existing leadership research has presented conflicting views on the effects of leader anger expressions. The present research aims to reconcile these findings by proposing that the type of inferences followers make (i.e., motivation-focused inference or trait-focused inference) is a key factor determining the outcomes of leader anger expressions. Through one survey study (Study 1) and two experimental studies (Studies 2 and 3), the present research indicates that the effectiveness of leader anger expressions is associated with the type of inferences followers draw from the anger. In general, we found support for the negative relationship between trait-focused inferences and leader effectiveness, but were unable to properly test the positive relationship between motivation-focused inferences and leader effectiveness due to the lack of appropriate instrumental variables. We also investigated whether followers’ implicit theories of personality (i.e., entity versus incremental theory) would moderate the effect of leader anger expressions on the type of inferences made by followers, which in turn shapes leader effectiveness. The results of Study 3 provide evidence of the moderating role of implicit theories of personality. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the present research are discussed.





  • A reconceptualization of authentic leadership: Leader legitimation via follower-centered assessment of the moral dimension
    Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Yusuf M. Sidani, W. Glenn Rowe

    We explore some challenges that face authentic leadership scholarship including problems related to how the construct is understood and measured. We present a model of authentic leadership that looks at it, not as a leadership style, but as an outcome of a legitimation process. Authentic leadership represents legitimated follower perceptions of a leader’s authenticity which are activated by moral judgments. We explain how a follower-centered assessment of the moral component helps explain leadership dynamics in situations involving ethical relativism, thus alleviating concerns regarding the presumed moral component of the construct. The overlap between leaders’ and followers’ value systems leads to impressions of authenticity, even in cases in which there are no clear universal moral standards. An authentic person’s behavior cannot be labeled as “leadership” unless it is embraced by a follower who grants moral legitimacy to the leader. We then discuss the implications of our study for scholars and practitioners.





  • Inequality rules: Resource distribution and the evolution of dominance- and prestige-based leadership
    Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Richard Ronay, William W. Maddux, William von Hippel

    Ballooning levels of societal inequality have led to a resurgence of interest in the economic causes and consequences of wealth disparity. What has drawn less attention in the scientific literature is how different levels of resource inequality influence what types of individuals emerge as leaders. In the current paper we take a distal approach to understanding the psychological consequences of inequality and the associated implications for leadership. We describe how the distribution of resources in contrasting animal and small-scale human societies incentivizes dominance-oriented versus prestige-oriented leadership strategies, and we use this framework to tease out a number of implications for modern organizational environments. In particular, we suggest that higher levels of inequality attract and favor dominance-oriented rather than prestige-oriented leaders, and that inequality incentivizes leaders to favor their own self-interest over the interests of the organizations they lead. We describe the features of modern organizations that might facilitate the emergence of dominance-oriented leadership and discuss the downstream consequences for organizations. Finally, we explore the contextual and cultural moderators of inequality’s relationship with leader/follower dynamics.





  • How leader role identity influences the process of leader emergence: A social network analysis
    Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Navio Kwok, Samuel Hanig, Douglas J. Brown, Winny Shen

    Contemporary theories on leadership development emphasize the importance of having a leader identity in building leadership skills and functioning effectively as leaders. We build on this approach by unpacking the role leader identity plays in the leader emergence process. Taking the perspective that leadership is a dynamic social process between group members, we propose a social network-based process model whereby leader role identity predicts network centrality (i.e., betweenness and indegree), which then contributes to leader emergence. We test our model using a sample of 88 cadets participating in a leadership development training course. In support of our model, cadets who possess a stronger leader role identity at the beginning of the course were more likely to emerge as leaders. However this relationship was only mediated by one form of network centrality, indegree centrality, reflecting one’s ability to build relationships within one’s group. Implications for research and practice are discussed.





  • Paradox versus dilemma mindset: A theory of how women leaders navigate the tensions between agency and communion
    Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Wei Zheng, Ronit Kark, Alyson L. Meister

    A wealth of literature documents that women leaders can face simultaneous and yet conflictual demands for both agency and communion, due to the incongruence of their leader role and gender role demands. However, we still know little about why some women cope with the tensions between agency and communion better than others and what implications are involved. Using a paradox perspective, we develop a theoretical model to explain how women leaders experience and respond to agency-communion tensions, which impacts their intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes. Specifically, we propose that in response to experiencing tensions fueled by the dual demands for agency and communion, women leaders can adopt a paradox mindset that simultaneously embraces agency and communion, or a dilemma mindset that dichotomizes agency and communion. The paradox mindset helps women leaders build psychological resilience, identity coexistence, and leadership effectiveness, whereas those who adopt a dilemma mindset experience depleted resilience, identity separation, and lowered leadership effectiveness. Further, our model highlights individual, interpersonal, and organizational conditions that shape women’s experience and stimulate a paradox mindset versus a dilemma mindset. We conclude by discussing theoretical and practical implications of our model.





  • The queen bee: A myth? The effect of top-level female leadership on subordinate females
    Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Paulo Roberto Arvate, Gisele Walczak Galilea, Isabela Todescat

    We investigate the effect of female leadership on gender differences in public and private organizations. Female leadership impact was constructed using a quasi-experiment involving mayoral elections, and our research used a sample of 8.3 million organizations distributed over 5600 Brazilian municipalities. Our main results show that when municipalities in which a woman was elected leader (treatment group) are compared with municipalities in which a male was elected leader (control group) there was an increase in the number of top and middle female managers in public organizations. Two aspects contribute to the results: time and command/role model. The time effect is important because our results are obtained with reelected women – in their second term – and the command/role model (the queen bee phenomenon is either small, or non-existent) is important because of the institutional characteristics of public organizations: female leaders (mayor) have much asymmetrical power and decision-making discretion, i.e., she chooses the top managers. These top managers then choose middle managers influenced by female leadership (a role model). We obtained no significant results for private organizations. Our work contributes to the literature on leadership by addressing some specific issues: an empirical investigation with a causal effect between the variables (regression-discontinuity design – a non-parametric estimation), the importance of role models, and how the observed effects are time-dependent. Insofar as public organizations are concerned, the evidence from our large-scale study suggests that the queen bee phenomenon may be a myth; instead, of keeping subordinate women at bay, our results show that women leaders who are afforded much managerial discretion behave in a benevolent manner toward subordinate women. The term “Regal Leader” instead of “Queen Bee” is thus a more appropriate characterization of women in top positions of power.





  • Team incentives, task assignment, and performance: A field experiment
    Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Josse Delfgaauw, Robert Dur, Michiel Souverijn

    The performance of a work team commonly depends on the effort exerted by the team members as well as on the division of tasks among them. However, when leaders assign tasks to team members, performance is usually not the only consideration. Favouritism, employees’ seniority, employees’ preferences over tasks, and fairness considerations often play a role as well. Team incentives have the potential to curtail the role of these factors in favor of performance — in particular when the incentive plan includes both the leader and the team members. This paper presents the results of a field experiment designed to study the effects of such team incentives on task assignment and performance. We introduce team incentives in a random subsets of 108 stores of a Dutch retail chain. We find no effect of the incentive, neither on task assignment nor on performance.





  • The effects of leadership change on team escalation of commitment
    Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
    Source:The Leadership Quarterly

    Author(s): Hanna Kalmanovich-Cohen, Matthew J. Pearsall, Jessica Siegel Christian

    Although teams benefit from developing plans and processes that boost efficiency and reduce uncertainty, they may become too attached to these plans and escalate commitment when an alternative response is needed. Drawing on theories of team leadership, team processes and escalation of commitment, we propose that a change in leadership can help the team reduce commitment to outdated plans and avoid further escalation over time. Across two studies, we tested and found support for our hypotheses and provide evidence that leadership change can break the cycle of escalation by enhancing leader-driven team reflection and refocusing the team on error correction instead of additional investment. We discuss how the results of these studies extend existing theory and add to our understanding of the important role leaders play in enhancing team adaptation and preventing team escalation.





http://rss.sciencedirect.com/publication/science/10489843

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