Psychological Assessment

  • Measures of body image: Confirmatory factor analysis and association with disordered eating. 20170309
    The current study aimed to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of 3 measures of body image disturbance (body image flexibility, body avoidance, and body checking) considered to be relevant to eating disorder psychopathology, with the aim of determining the optimal structure of each for use in treatment planning and outcome monitoring. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which factors had the strongest association with disordered eating. Participants were 328 female undergraduate university students aged 17–25 years. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted followed by correlational, regression, and t test analyses. The original proposed models were retained for the body image flexibility and body checking measures, while an alternative model was supported for the body image avoidance measure. All 3 solutions were found to have acceptable validity and reliability. Scores on each measure differed significantly between normal and disordered eaters. The body image flexibility measure and selected subscales of the body image avoidance and checking measures had unique associations with eating disorder psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. Results of this study indicate how the assessment of body image can be achieved in treatment of eating disorders in such a way as to reduce participant burden while adequately assessing the body image disturbance that is characteristic of eating disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • A self-report measure for the ICD-11 dimensional trait model proposal: The personality inventory for ICD-11. 20170223
    Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire—Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form markers of future suicidal behavior in a forensic psychiatric hospital. 20170403
    Past research indicates a need to integrate objective psychological testing with clinical interview data during suicide risk assessment. The current study evaluated the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in the prediction of future suicidal behaviors in a sample of 1,110 forensic inpatients (807 males, 303 females). Results indicated that scales from all substantive domains of the MMPI-2-RF were significantly positively associated with future suicidal behaviors. Consistent with expectations, the best predictors were scale scores from the internalizing and externalizing domains of the inventory. Relative Risk Ratios indicated that individuals producing elevations on these scales were at 2 to 4 times greater risk of future suicidal behaviors compared with those who did not produce elevations. Implications of these findings and limitations of this study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • The predictive properties of dynamic sex offender risk assessment instruments: A meta-analysis. 20170403
    This meta-analysis is the first to our knowledge to evaluate the predictive properties of dynamic sex offender risk assessment instruments, which are designed to assess factors associated with recidivism that are amenable to change. Based on 52 studies (N = 13,446), we found that dynamic risk assessment instruments have small-to-moderate predictive properties, with Cohen’s d ranging between 0.71 for sexual recidivism (41 studies, 22 unique samples, N = 5,699) and 0.43 for violent (including sexual) recidivism (27 studies, 14 unique samples, N = 10,368). Incremental predictive validity of dynamic over static risk assessment instruments was significant but modest; Cox hazard ratios varied between 1.08 for sexual recidivism (19 studies, 13 unique samples, N = 3,747) and 1.05 for any recidivism (11 studies, 8 unique samples, N = 2,511). Cox hazard ratios for the predictive validity of change scores on dynamic risk assessment instruments, controlling for static and initial dynamic scores, varied between 0.91 for sexual recidivism (6 studies, 6 unique samples, n = 1,980) and 0.95 for any recidivism (3 studies, 3 unique samples, n = 1,172). These findings indicate that dynamic risk assessment instruments can, in terms of Andrews and Bonta’s (2010) risk and need principles, be a useful tool for improving sex offender treatment. They have the potential to contribute to the selection of appropriate, more individually tailored treatment approaches (focusing on individually relevant criminogenic need factors) and can assist in the evaluation of treatment effects. Considering this, further development of dynamic risk assessment instruments is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • The cross-cultural generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth version for adjudicated indigenous youth. 20170403
    There is a paucity of Indigenous-specific research examining the reliability and validity of assessment tools routinely utilized within the justice system. Evaluating the cross-cultural reliability and validity of such tools is important for establishing generalizability as part of ethical practices; this is particularly important to address within Canada’s Indigenous youth population because of longstanding effects of colonization, structural adversities, and overrepresentation in the youth justice system and the possible long-term impact of improper assessment on adult outcomes. A step toward this aim was undertaken in the current study by comparing scale reliability, structural validity, measurement invariance, and predictive validity of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) across Indigenous (n = 137) and White (n = 312) adjudicated youth. Polychoric ordinal alpha values indicated that PCL:YV test score scale reliability was high for both Indigenous and White youth. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a 3-factor and 4-factor model provided acceptable-to-good fit for the full sample, and an examination of configural, metric, and scalar measurement invariance illustrated that both factor structures fit the subsamples equally well. PCL:YV test scores were also moderately associated with measures of different offending outcomes and performed similarly across White and Indigenous participants. Overall, support was found for the use of the PCL:YV within Indigenous youth, including its use in conjunction with other risk factors and assessment tools to guide risk assessment decisions for this group. The importance of cross-cultural research and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Item ordering and computerized classification tests with cluster-based scoring: An investigation of the countdown method. 20170316
    The countdown method is a well-known approach to reducing the average length of screening instruments that are presented by computer. In the countdown method, testing is terminated once the result of the screener (“positive” or “negative”) has been unambiguously determined from prior answers. Previous research has examined whether presenting dichotomously scored items in order from “least to most frequently endorsed” or “most to least frequently endorsed” is more efficient when the countdown method is used. The current study describes the Mean Score procedure, an extension of the above item ordering procedures to polytomously scored items, and evaluates its efficiency relative to the distribution of other possible item orderings in 2 real-data simulations. Both simulations involve item responses to the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM–5 (PCL-5). In the first simulation, items were scored polytomously, and a single cutoff point was used to determine the screening result. In the second simulation, items were converted to dichotomous scores, as well as categorized into 4 clusters; a positive result for the entire assessment was obtained if and only if a positive result was obtained for each cluster. The latter simulation also investigated the effect of reordering the clusters themselves on the efficiency of the countdown method. Results indicated that the Mean Score procedure does not necessarily produce the optimal ordering, but tends to assemble an efficient item ordering relative to the distribution of possible orderings. In the second simulation, reordering the clusters themselves affected efficiency. Future research directions are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Construct validity of the G-CPAQ and its mediating role in pain interference and adjustment. 20170403
    The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is a measure of pain acceptance comprised of pain willingness (PW) and activity engagement (AE; McCracken et al., 2004). Concerns about the factorial structure of the CPAQ exist, as it is not yet clear whether PW and AE constitute 2 independent constructs or 1, pain acceptance. Concerns also exist about the internal and predictive validity of test score interpretations of this measure. This study also presents that the choice of predictor variables has contributed to theoretical confusion regarding the impact of pain acceptance on pain-related adjustment. The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the psychometric properties of both the long (20 items) and short (8 items) versions of the Greek-Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (G-CPAQ); (b) to examine the utility of a 2-factor solution in predicting psychosocial adjustment to pain using confirmatory factor analysis; and (c) to explore the mediating effects of pain acceptance and cognitive defusion, comprising the “open” response style to pain, between pain interference and pain related outcomes. One hundred and sixty chronic pain patients completed a questionnaire packet including pain indexes, pain acceptance, cognitive fusion, avoidance, and emotional distress. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the 2-factor solution, though a general good model fit was achieved only for the short G-CPAQ version. Structural equation modeling showed that PW and AE coupled with cognitive defusion partially mediated the influence of pain interference on pain severity, emotional distress, and avoidance of pain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Investigation of factor structure and measurement invariance by gender for the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System among high school students. 20170316
    The Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) is used by U.S. schools to screen students for behavioral and emotional risks. The BESS comprises a student form, a teacher form, and a parent form. We explored the factor structure of the BESS Student Form among high school students and evaluated measurement invariance by gender using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis. The results suggested that the BESS Student Form has a 5-factor structure and holds to partial invariance by gender. The partial invariance model revealed 5 items that functioned differentially. These item-level findings suggest that female and male adolescents have different perspectives about their relationships with their parents, self-esteem, self-reliance, and atypicality. The implications of our study are twofold: The BESS Student Form might be used with female and male adolescents in its current form, but the analysis of the data suggested that possible changes be made in the item content during the next revision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

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