Psychological Assessment

  • A within-person examination of the ideal-point response process. 20170529
    Ideal-point processes assume that individuals engage in introspective comparisons when responding to self-reported typical traits such as personality, affect, and attitudes. Although this type of response process is fundamentally a within-person phenomenon, past research has relied on between-person data using item response theory (IRT) model comparisons to draw inferences about the appropriateness of ideal-point response processes. However, between-person data may not necessarily be indicative of within-person processes. Across 2 studies, the authors used a paired comparison paradigm to examine whether within-person responses conform to an ideal-point response process (vs. a dominance response process). The authors found that an ideal-point response process more accurately describes within-person responses to personality, attitude, and affect constructs compared to a dominance response process. They additionally found that verbal ability and conscientiousness moderate both ideal and dominance response processes; individuals high on conscientiousness or high on verbal ability are more likely to engage in more precise introspective comparisons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Development and validation of an Overreporting Scale for the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID-5). 20170529
    Our aim in the current study was to develop a validity scale for the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID-5) to detect noncredible overreported responding. To this end, we used a rare symptoms approach and identified extreme response options on PID-5 items that were infrequently endorsed by students in 3 different university samples (N = 1,370) and in a psychiatric patient sample (N = 194). The resulting 10-item scale (the PID-5-ORS) produced adequate-to-good estimates of internal reliability and was significantly correlated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructued Form (MMPI-2-RF) overreporting validity scales, providing evidence of concurrent validity. The criterion validity of the PID-5-ORS was demonstrated in an analog simulation design study. More specifically, university students instructed to overreport (n = 80) scored substantially higher on the PID-5-ORS relative to both a group of genuine psychiatric patients and students instructed to complete the PID-5 under standard (honest) instructions (n = 161); the effect size magnitudes associated with these differences were large. Classification accuracy analyses further revealed that high scores on the PID-5-ORS were associated with high specificity (and thus, low rates of false positive classifications) in differentiating overreporters from genuine patients, with sensitivity being somewhat weaker. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Development and validation of the Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Problems. 20170619
    The interpersonal circumplex (IPC) is a well-established model of social behavior that spans basic personality and clinical science. Although several measures are available to assess interpersonal functioning (e.g., motives, traits) within an IPC framework, researchers studying interpersonal difficulties have relied primarily on a single measure, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—Circumplex Scales (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Although the IIP-C is a widely used measure, it is currently the only measure specifically designed to assess maladaptive interpersonal behavior using the IPC framework. The purpose of the current study is to describe a new 64-item measure of interpersonal problems, called the Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Problems (CSIP). Interpersonal problems derived from a pool of 400 personality-related problems were assessed in two large university samples. In the scale development sample (N = 1,197), items that best characterized each sector of the IPC were identified, and a set of eight 8-item circumplex scales was developed. Psychometric properties of the resulting measure were then examined in the validation sample (N = 757). Results from confirmatory circumplex structural analyses indicated that the CSIP fit well to a quasi-circumplex model. The CSIP converged with the IIP-C and the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, 1995), and associated in theoretically expected ways with broader assessments of adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits and symptoms of psychological distress. The CSIP augments the IIP-C with additional content, thereby helping to extend the underlying constructs, and provides an alternative means for studying the interpersonal consequences of personality and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Examination of the Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding in six non-English language samples. 20170619
    The Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR; Mowle et al., 2016) was recently developed to identify inattentiveness or comprehension difficulties that may compromise the validity of responses on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010). The TAPIR initially was constructed and cross-validated using exclusively English-speaking participants from the United States; however, research using the TriPM has been increasingly conducted internationally, with numerous foreign language translations of the measure emerging. The present study examined the cross-language utility of the TAPIR in German, Dutch, Swedish, and Italian translations of the TriPM using 6 archival samples of community members, university students, forensic psychiatric inpatients, forensic detainees, and adolescents residing outside the United States (combined N = 5,404). Findings suggest that the TAPIR effectively detects careless responding across these 4 translated versions of the TriPM without the need for language-specific modifications. The TAPIR total score meaningfully discriminated genuine participant responses from both fully and partially randomly generated data in every sample, and demonstrated further utility in detecting fixed “all true” or “all false” response patterns. In addition, TAPIR scores were reliably associated with inconsistent responding scores from another psychopathy inventory. Specificity for a range of tentative cut scores for assessing profile validity was modestly reduced among our samples relative to rates previously obtained with the English version of the TriPM; however, overall the TAPIR appears to demonstrate satisfactory cross-language generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • The association between parent-reported and observed parenting: A multi-level meta-analysis. 20170619
    The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of the association between parent-reported and observed parenting, and to investigate which specific characteristics of participants, questionnaires, or observational procedures moderate this association. A systematic search of relevant peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 yielded 36 articles (N = 8,510) and 89 effect sizes. Results from a 3-level random-effects meta-analysis demonstrated a weak, yet significant, overall association of r = .17 between parent-reported and observed parenting. The magnitude of the effect size depended on questionnaire length (larger effect for more items) and the type of parenting investigated (largest effects for negative parent behaviors, next largest effects for positive parent behaviors, and smallest effect for controlling parent behaviors). In conclusion, this study shows that the strength of the association between parent-reported and observed parenting is small but significant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Clusters of financially incentivized chronic pain patients using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). 20170619
    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has been shown to have clinical utility in the assessment of individuals with chronic pain (e.g., predicting surgical outcomes). The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales in profiling patients with chronic pain who had external financial incentive (e.g., workers’ compensation claims) and determine the associations between Validity Scale response patterns and important outcomes. Cluster analysis identified 2 similarly sized clusters of patients with very different MMPI-2-RF profiles. Cluster 1 was characterized by valid responding and showed mean elevations on the somatic and low positive emotion Restructured Clinical scales. Cluster 2 was characterized by patients overreporting on the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales, who also demonstrated elevations on 7 of the 9 RC scales. Cluster membership was differentially associated with clinical variables: patients in Cluster 2 had greater self-reported pain and disability, were less likely to have spine-related findings on imaging and were more likely to be classified as probable or definite malingerers. These results support the utility of the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales in distinguishing between credible and noncredible responses from patients with chronic pain seen within a medico-legal context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • A method for characterizing semantic and lexical properties of sentence completions in traumatic brain injury. 20170626
    Clinical investigations of individuals with chronic stage traumatic brain injury (TBI) showing mild-to-moderate levels of residual impairment largely use standardized neuropsychological assessments to measure executive functioning. The Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT) relies upon several executive functions but detects cognitive impairments across studies inconsistently. We sought to (a) further characterize sentence completions on the HSCT by quantifying their semantic and lexical properties and (b) investigate cognitive components important for HSCT performance. A sample of 108 mild-to-moderate participants with TBI underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that evaluated verbal ability, working memory, processing speed, task switching, and inhibitory control. Multiple regression analyses suggest that these 5 cognitive components differentially contribute to describing HSCT performance and measures of semantic and lexical properties of unconnected sentence completions. Across all 3 measures, verbal ability was most predictive of performance, while inhibitory control was the least predictive. Working memory capacity also predicted HSCT performance, while processing speed and task switching ability predicted lexical measures. We present a method for quantitatively measuring the semantic and lexical properties of generated words on the HSCT and how these additional measures relate to executive functions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • An examination of the precision of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule using item response theory. 20170807
    The current study examined the reliability of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) across the continuum of severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) core deficits. Modules 3 and 4 of the ADOS assess the deficits of ASD in 2 core domains (Social Affect and Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors [RRB]) among verbally fluent children, adolescents, and adults, and ADOS diagnostic classification of ASD is based on a total score that combines the 2 domains. Currently, the total and domain scores are calculated using only a subset of the administered items. This study used an item response theory (IRT) approach to examine whether scores from the ADOS Modules 3 and 4 item sets under the revised scoring algorithm provide adequate reliability around the diagnostic threshold of the total score, as well as across the hypothesized continuum of the Social Affect and RRB domains. Furthermore, the present study examined whether the reliability of the ASD domains measured by the ADOS is improved by incorporating items that are collected but not included in the current diagnostic algorithm. Measurement precision was estimated using IRT models, which allow for an examination of reliability across a continuum of ASD domain severity. Results suggest that although the ADOS Modules 3 and 4 are reliable at the diagnostic threshold using only the scoring algorithm items, adding additional items can improve the reliability of scores at moderately low and moderately high levels of ASD severity. However, even with additional items, the ADOS Modules 3 and 4 do not allow for adequately reliable measurement of restrictive and repetitive behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

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