Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

  • The forward testing effect: Interim testing enhances inductive learning. 20170921
    Induction refers to the process in which people generalize their previous experience when making uncertain inferences about the environment that go beyond direct experience. Here we show that interim tests strongly enhance inductive learning. Participants studied the painting styles of eight famous artists across four lists, each comprising paintings by one pair of artists. In an interim test group participants’ induction was tested after each list. In two control groups participants solved math problems (interim math group) or studied additional new paintings (interim study group) following each of Lists 1–3 and were asked to classify new paintings on List 4. In the List 4 interim test, the interim test group significantly outperformed the other two groups, indicating that interim testing enhances new inductive learning. In a final cumulative test, accuracy in the interim test group at classifying new paintings by studied artists was nearly double that of the other two groups, indicating the major importance of interim testing in inductive learning. This enhancing effect of interim testing on inductive learning was associated with metacognitive awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Can the first letter advantage be shaped by script-specific characteristics? 20170629
    We examined whether the first letter advantage that has been reported in the Roman script disappears, or even reverses, depending on the characteristics of the orthography. We chose Thai because it has several “nonaligned” vowels that are written prior to the consonant but phonologically follow it in speech (e.g., แฟน<ε:fn> is spoken as /fɛ:n/) whereas other “aligned” vowels are written and spoken in a corresponding order, as occurs in English (e.g., ฟาก is spoken as /fa:k/). We employed the forced choice decision paradigm of Adelman, Marquis, and Sabatos-DeVito (2010) to examine letter identification across letter positions in 3- and 4-letter Thai legal nonword pairs. Results showed an advantage of the initial letter position for the aligned legal nonwords, as occurs in Roman script (e.g., Scaltritti & Balota, 2013). However, for the nonaligned legal nonwords, an advantage of second letter position was found which is in line with the characteristics of these types of stimuli: the critical initial consonant occurs in the second letter position. These results highlight the importance of the initial phonological letter in Thai, which is crucial for mapping orthography to phonology and for lexical access. In conclusion, these results illustrate that initial letter advantage can be shaped by the characteristics of the orthography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

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