New Ideas in Psychology

  • Visual illusions and direct perception: Elaborating on Gibson's insights
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Matthieu M. de Wit , John van der Kamp , Rob Withagen

    Gibson argued that illusory pictorial displays contain “inadequate” information (1966, p. 288) but also that a “very special kind of selective attention” (p. 313) can dispel the illusion–suggesting that adequate perceptual information could in fact be potentially available to observers. The present paper describes Gibson’s treatment of geometrical illusions and reviews pertinent empirical evidence. Interestingly, Gibson’s insights have been corroborated by recent findings of inter- and intra-observer variability in susceptibility to visual illusions as a function of culture, learning and task. It is argued that these findings require a modification of the general Gibsonian principle of perception as the detection of specifying information. Withagen and Chemero’s (2009) evolutionary motivated reconceptualization of perception predicts observers’ use of both specifying and non-specifying information and inter- and intra-observer variability therein. Based on this reconceptualization we develop an ecological approach to visual illusions that explains differential illusion effects in terms of the optical variable(s) detected.





  • A classification of classics. Gestalt psychology and the tropes of rhetoric
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Giorgio Baruchello

    In this paper the long-established Gestalt laws of cognitive organisation are employed as a tool to map the complex realm of rhetorical tropes, which have been organised in a number of other ways since the days of Aristotle’s pioneering treatise on rhetoric. By mapping rhetorical tropes in this manner, this paper substantiates the claim that Gestalt psychology can work qua descriptive science of cognitive phenomena at large, for such a mapping provides an exemplary and extensive application of Gestalt laws within a field of investigation, i.e. rhetorical tropes, that is relevant to all forms of human communication, scientific ones included.





  • Editorial Board/Publication Information
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35









  • Discussing normative features of Future Time Perspective construct: Renewing with the Lewinian approach from a sociocognitive perspective
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Severin Guignard , Themis Apostolidis , Christophe Demarque

    Since the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), an important body of research emerges on the Time Perspective (TP) construct and more specifically on the Future Time Perspective (FTP) dimension. However, a gap is growing between the psychosocial Lewinian approach to TP and the dispositional way it is operationalized in many studies nowadays. One way of underlining the psychosocial roots of TP and to show the problematic use of FTP in a personalistic manner is to highlight normative aspects of FTP. From a sociocognitive perspective, present research aims to examine the social valorization of FTP and to determine the type of social value associated with it in a French context. Results reveal the social valorization of FTP-ZTPI dimension and permit to discuss the normativity of this construct. We suggest that FTP might be normative because it refers to certain social expectations and ideologies in the context of contemporary Western societies.





  • Study on emotion spaces with centrality measure
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Janghoon Yang

    In this paper, we study existing models of emotion space using centrality, which is borrowed from network theory, to identify key emotions as the central nodes in a network, for the purposes of understanding the existing emotion spaces better in a new way. With several different definitions of centrality, key emotions are identified for four existing emotion space models. We also propose a method for integrating existing spaces to build a refined space with more emotion terms. Each model identified different key emotions. When we reduced emotion spaces such that they each contained 21 common emotions, the key emotions identified remained different, implying fundamental structural differences among existing emotion space models. These findings call for further experimental verification and the refinement of emotion models for future research to make it more useful in emotion research.





  • Do the right thing! A study on social representation of obedience and disobedience
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Maura Pozzi , Francesco Fattori , Piero Bocchiaro , Sara Alfieri

    The present research is aimed at investigating through a mixed-method approach the dimensions underlying the psychosocial constructs of obedience, disobedience and the relations between them. To this end, we consider the attitudes toward (dis)obedience being socially constructed, and we chose the theory of social representations (Abric, 2003; Moscovici, 1961) as the theoretical framework of this study. The data, collected on a sample of 190 individuals, allowed us to define these social objects, reducing both their complexity and polysemy. Obedience and disobedience were both seen by research participants as context-dependent behaviours, neither positive nor negative, per se. Also, both related to the concept of authority (individuals, institutions, and society). However, while obedience was mostly considered an uncritical response to laws, social norms or physical authorities, disobedience was defined as an active, conscious line of conduct. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.





  • Understanding ‘relevance’ in psychology
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Wahbie Long

    Since the 1970s, psychologists around the world have questioned the ‘social relevance’ of psychology in their societies. Curiously, the matter of ‘social relevance’ is under-theorized in the discipline, a state of affairs this paper attempts to correct. First, it describes how disagreements about psychology’s cognitive interest – and subject matter – create an environment in which accusations of ‘social irrelevance’ can flourish. Second, it asserts that applied psychology’s reliance on basic psychology for its scientific authority makes debates about ‘social relevance’ inevitable. And third, it claims that the discipline’s longstanding antithesis to the social domain leaves it vulnerable to these debates – particularly in recent decades that have witnessed rapid social change. The paper reflects further on the rise of ‘market relevance’ in the global academy and its significance for psychology today.





  • An integrative account of memory and reasoning phenomena
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Sébastien Hélie , Ron Sun

    There is growing consensus that human memory is mediated by multiple qualitatively different systems co-evolved to function in a complementary way. As a result, memory should be studied not only using direct tests of memory but also using other tasks that naturally require memory access. This article presents an attempt at using the declarative memory systems in CLARION (termed the Non-Action-Centered Subsystem or NACS) to account for a wide range of psychological phenomena involving both the direct and indirect use of declarative memory. We advocate an architectural approach, which is broad-based (rather than depth-based). As such, the explanations presented herein, from psychological domains as diverse as human memory, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and heuristic reasoning, were based on architectural properties of CLARION and most of them did not require the adjustment of any numerical parameter. This article concludes with a comparison of CLARION with alternative views of memory systems.





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