New Ideas in Psychology

  • A new perspective on self-deception for applied purposes
    Publication date: December 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 43

    Author(s): Tatiana Bachkirova

    The concept of self-deception attracts the attention of many fields of knowledge, however very few attempts have been made to compare and contrast these positions for applied purposes. This paper provides theoretical analysis of the literature on self-deception from a pragmatic perspective that informs personal development work on recognizing and minimizing self-deception and helping practices such as counselling and coaching. Five distinct strands of thought on self-deception are identified and discussed with their implications for personal development work revealing significant diversity in the views on self-deception. The paper suggests that what is missing in current theories of self-deception is consideration of self in self-deceivers. In conjunction with theories of adult development this paper suggests a new developmental perspective on self-deception that highlights individual differences according to developmental stages providing a unique contribution to current debates about the concept and potential approaches for influencing selfdeception. From the pragmatic perspective the paper also proposes a synthesis of the discussed theoretical perspectives in the form of a conceptual model that demonstrates the complexity and multidimensionality of self-deception.





  • On the nature of creepiness
    Publication date: December 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 43

    Author(s): Francis T. McAndrew, Sara S. Koehnke

    Surprisingly, until now there has never been an empirical study of “creepiness.” An international sample of 1341 individuals responded to an online survey. Males were perceived as being more likely to be creepy than females, and females were more likely to associate sexual threat with creepiness. Unusual nonverbal behavior and characteristics associated with unpredictability were also predictors of creepiness, as were some occupations and hobbies. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that being “creeped out” is an evolved adaptive emotional response to ambiguity about the presence of threat that enables us to maintain vigilance during times of uncertainty.





  • Knowledge claims in cognitive development research: Problems and alternatives
    Publication date: December 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 43

    Author(s): Patrick Byers

    Children’s knowledge is often characterized in short propositional statements, e.g., a child may be claimed to know how counting works. This article analyzes the use of these knowledge claims in cognitive development research on children’s understanding of numbers and counting. In this research, attempts to characterize children’s knowledge in terms of knowledge claims are repeatedly invalidated by children’s inconsistently normative uses of counting. This suggests that rather than describing cognitive structures/states, knowledge claims describe whether, in a certain domain, a person has a disposition to behave normatively (i.e., in a way that fits a consensually established standard of how things are appropriately done). Given that children’s developing behavior is, by definition, inconsistently normative, knowledge claims can only characterize what research studies on children’s conceptual knowledge presuppose—the incomplete normativity of children’s behavior. Following the identification and explanation of this problem, several viable alternative approaches to the study of children’s knowledge are described. The diversity of these alternatives reflects the need to disentangle descriptions from explanations, and discursive abstractions about cognitive processes from the processes themselves.





  • Methodological consequences of weak embodied cognition and shared intentionality
    Publication date: December 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 43

    Author(s): Joe J. Thompson, Nehdia Sameen, Timothy P. Racine

    Embodied approaches to cognition have been empirically successful both in developmental psychology and robotics. Shared intentionality has been similarly productive in developmental and comparative psychology. However, embodiment and shared intentionality both have a rich philosophical history. As a consequence, researchers who aim to benefit from the methodological advances of these literature must navigate through a variety of different usages, many of which rest on potentially contentious philosophies regarding the nature of mind. We attempt to identify renditions of embodiment and shared intentionality that can motivate research while making relatively modest assumptions. As we will see, such readings already exist in the embodied cognition literature. We find most uses of shared intentionality, however, to be unnecessarily strong theses that inevitably tie a researcher to contentious frameworks. We suggest a usage-based explication of shared intentionality that is far weaker, and may motivate research in the absence of such assumptions.





  • Editorial Board/Publication Information
    Publication date: August 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 42









  • Finding common ground: Alternatives to code models for language use
    Publication date: August 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 42

    Author(s): Carol A. Fowler, Bert Hodges

    The papers in this special issue offer valuable perspectives on public language activities as they are embedded in cultural and social contexts. The perspectives are diverse in their theoretical perspectives, the issues on which they focus, and the methodologies they use and promote using. They represent language studies from the perspective of ecological psychology, dynamical systems approaches, the Distributed Language Approach, and others. The contributions are, in some cases, revolutionary and dis-equilibrating. Different contributions to the special issue offer critiques of conventional scientific studies of decontextualized language and language processing, and offer new perspectives on such diverse domains as the understanding of agency, the study of reading, educational practice, and understanding how articulatory speech actions can have significance beyond that of the physical actions themselves.





  • Folk-linguistic fictions and the explananda of the language sciences
    Publication date: August 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 42

    Author(s): Talbot J. Taylor

    For the past two millennia, the explananda of language theory have been inherited from the Western linguistic tradition. The legacy is what might be called “the Western linguistic imaginary”: An indeterminate but deeply mesmerizing inventory of entities, properties, and powers of language commonly attributed to language and language-users and which therefore seem to stand in need of explanation. In recent years, naturalistic research programs in the cognitive sciences have provided illuminating explanations of basic (“lower-order”) cognitive phenomena. The challenge today for the science of language is whether, in transforming itself along the lines of epistemological naturalism, it can provide similarly illuminating explanations of any of its traditional explananda. In addressing this challenge, greater attention needs to be given to the source of such explananda in the everyday, culturally-diverse practices of folk metalinguistics.





  • Language as human ecology: A new agenda for linguistic education
    Publication date: August 2016
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 42

    Author(s): Alexander V. Kravchenko

    The efficiency of linguistic education based on the code model of language is questioned. The view of written language as a representation of speech ignores the important difference between the experientially different cognitive domains of speech and writing which affect human cognitive development by establishing an extended ecology of languaging. As a consequence, functional illiteracy in societies with established literate cultures becomes a real threat. It can be avoided when it is understood that language is a kind of socially driven behavior which contributes, in a quite definitive way, to the rich context of the human ecological niche, including texts, without which it cannot be understood.





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