New Ideas in Psychology

  • Visual illusions and direct perception: Elaborating on Gibson's insights
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Matthieu M. de Wit , John van der Kamp , Rob Withagen

    Gibson argued that illusory pictorial displays contain “inadequate” information (1966, p. 288) but also that a “very special kind of selective attention” (p. 313) can dispel the illusion–suggesting that adequate perceptual information could in fact be potentially available to observers. The present paper describes Gibson’s treatment of geometrical illusions and reviews pertinent empirical evidence. Interestingly, Gibson’s insights have been corroborated by recent findings of inter- and intra-observer variability in susceptibility to visual illusions as a function of culture, learning and task. It is argued that these findings require a modification of the general Gibsonian principle of perception as the detection of specifying information. Withagen and Chemero’s (2009) evolutionary motivated reconceptualization of perception predicts observers’ use of both specifying and non-specifying information and inter- and intra-observer variability therein. Based on this reconceptualization we develop an ecological approach to visual illusions that explains differential illusion effects in terms of the optical variable(s) detected.





  • A classification of classics. Gestalt psychology and the tropes of rhetoric
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Giorgio Baruchello

    In this paper the long-established Gestalt laws of cognitive organisation are employed as a tool to map the complex realm of rhetorical tropes, which have been organised in a number of other ways since the days of Aristotle’s pioneering treatise on rhetoric. By mapping rhetorical tropes in this manner, this paper substantiates the claim that Gestalt psychology can work qua descriptive science of cognitive phenomena at large, for such a mapping provides an exemplary and extensive application of Gestalt laws within a field of investigation, i.e. rhetorical tropes, that is relevant to all forms of human communication, scientific ones included.





  • How the tower of information leads to an integrated framework for biopsychosocial ideas
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Tom Weidig , Gilles Michaux

    The biopsychosocial model is the prevailing conceptual model in relationship to which clinicians organize their analysis, evaluation and intervention. Since its promotion by Engel, little work has been done to provide a more solid conceptual basis for the relationship between the biological and the psychosocial processes in sickness and in health. We propose such a framework, using the perspective of life forms as information gathering and utilizing systems. We derive the simplest non-trivial model, the four domain model, which consists of the physical domains determining human processes: the environment, the body, the confined memories, and the communicable memories. We then re-visit Engel’s case study to contrast our model with his systems approach, and apply it to issues in psychosomatics and the mind-body connection.





  • Default-mode network activity and its role in comprehension and management of psychophysiological insomnia: A new perspective
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Daniel Ruivo Marques , Ana Allen Gomes , Vanda Clemente , José Moutinho dos Santos , Miguel Castelo-Branco

    Psychophysiological insomnia (PI) is a common sleep disorder in which numerous variables interact. The mechanisms responsible for the etiology and maintenance of PI, though far from completely understood, point to the existence of hyperarousal of several systems. The frequent occurrence of ruminations and worries with a self-referential component (related or not with sleep complaints) during the pre-sleep period, and daytime wakefulness, seems to relate to the functions which have been associated with default-mode network (DMN) activity. This neural network seems to be involved in introspective thinking as well as emotional and episodic memory processing, among others. In this paper, we propose that PI may be conceptualized as a disorder associated with overactivity of some brain areas of DMN. Accordingly, it is also suggested that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a kind of non-pharmacological treatment, may alter the function of this network, improving symptoms of patients, and overall quality of life.





  • The challenges and opportunities of first-person inquiry in experimental psychology
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Ulrich Weger , Johannes Wagemann

    Psychology is concerned with outward (behavioural) and inward (mental and experiential) dimensions of inquiry. To study behaviour, psychologists are equipped with a comprehensive repertoire of measurement instruments. These instruments are not well suited to study the qualitative nature of inner experience, however: they yield data which, by their very nature as symbolic representations, abstract away from the primary phenomenon. To study qualitative experience, it would hence appear logical to engage a first-person, introspective method of inquiry. Psychology has a turbulent relationship to introspective research, however. In this article we review the concerns regarding the introspective approach; delineate the strengths – and also the limitations – of the experimental method; and, critically, outline a hybrid approach towards studying experience by exploring how important ingredients of the experimental approach can be transferred to the study of qualitative experience. This approach is a methodological proposal rather than an epistemological or ontological defence of introspection.





  • An ecological stance on risk and safe behaviors in children: The role of affordances and emergent behaviors
    Publication date: January 2015
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 36

    Author(s): Rita Cordovil , Duarte Araújo , Gert-Jan Pepping , João Barreiros

    Unintentional injuries are a major cause of disability and death among children. Initial strategies to address child safety issues have primarily either focused on the environment, trying to identify “risk environments”, or on the individual, trying to identify “at risk children”. More recently, the interaction between child and environment is starting to be addressed in order to enhance the understanding of childhood injuries. The present review suggests a framing of these studies in ecological theory, which implies that children with certain characteristics perceive certain affordances in the environment. In this context, risk may be considered a relational concept. The literature on risk prevention is reviewed and the role of caregivers in managing affordances is emphasized.





  • Editorial Board/Publication Information
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35









  • Discussing normative features of Future Time Perspective construct: Renewing with the Lewinian approach from a sociocognitive perspective
    Publication date: December 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 35

    Author(s): Severin Guignard , Themis Apostolidis , Christophe Demarque

    Since the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), an important body of research emerges on the Time Perspective (TP) construct and more specifically on the Future Time Perspective (FTP) dimension. However, a gap is growing between the psychosocial Lewinian approach to TP and the dispositional way it is operationalized in many studies nowadays. One way of underlining the psychosocial roots of TP and to show the problematic use of FTP in a personalistic manner is to highlight normative aspects of FTP. From a sociocognitive perspective, present research aims to examine the social valorization of FTP and to determine the type of social value associated with it in a French context. Results reveal the social valorization of FTP-ZTPI dimension and permit to discuss the normativity of this construct. We suggest that FTP might be normative because it refers to certain social expectations and ideologies in the context of contemporary Western societies.





http://rss.sciencedirect.com/publication/science/0732118X

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