New Ideas in Psychology

  • Moral expertise
    Publication date: August 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 34

    Author(s): Timothy L. Hulsey , Peter J. Hampson

    We offer a theory of moral expertise based on an updated version of the Thomistic concept of habitus. We maintain that mature moral control arises from internalized standards of belief married to corresponding actions; the result is moral expertise. Beliefs and actions (conceptualized as habitus) coalesce in a moral identity, which is then sustained by the beliefs and actions that comprise the habitus; what we do affects who we are and what we believe, just as what we believe guides what we do. In support of these claims, we examine recent research on moral judgment, moral identity, and moral emotions.

    Graphical abstract

    image




  • Creativity, identity, and representation: Towards a socio-cultural theory of creative identity
    Publication date: August 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 34

    Author(s): Vlad Petre Glăveanu , Lene Tanggaard

    The present article argues for the need to incorporate a theory of identity in the study of creativity and develops a socio-cultural framework of creative identity drawing inspiration from work on social representations. Creative identities are considered representational projects emerging in the interaction between self (the creator), multiple others (different audiences), and notions of creativity informed by societal discourses. An important temporal dimension is added to this model making the self–other–object triad expand into time and highlighting the changing nature of our representations of creativity and creative people. A basic typology of creative identities is proposed and illustrated with examples ranging from the work of artists and TV show hosts to everyday contexts such as the school and ordinary practices like craft activities. Promoted, denied and problematic identities are defined and contrasted in order to gain a better understanding of how identity – a simultaneously individual and collective project – fosters or, on the contrary, can impede creative work. In the end, a more comprehensive vision of creative identities as social, dynamic, contextual, multiple and mediated is formulated and arguments offered for why this perspective is important for both theory and practice.





  • A social-cognitive framework for understanding serious lies: Activation-decision-construction-action theory
    Publication date: August 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 34

    Author(s): Jeffrey J. Walczyk , Laura L. Harris , Terri K. Duck , Devyani Mulay

    Little is known about the cognition of deception (Gombos, 2006). We propose a cognitive account of serious lying (i.e., deception involving high stakes) in response to a solicitation of a truth: Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT). Built on the Activation-Decision-Construction Model of answering questions deceptively (Walczyk, Roper, Seeman, & Humphrey, 2003), the theory elaborates on the roles of executive processes, theory of mind, emotions, motivation, specifies cognitive processing thoroughly, and considers the rehearsal of lies. ADCAT’s four processing components are (a) activation of the truth, the (b) decision whether and how to alter deceptively the information shared, (c) construction of a deception, and (d) action [acting sincere while delivering a lie]. Core constructs are “theory of mind” and “cognitive resources”. Specifically, throughout serious deception, individuals are inferring the current or potential mental states of targets and taking steps to minimize the allocation of cognitive resources during delivery to appear honest and lie well.





  • Autonomous learning in psychologically-oriented cognitive architectures: A survey
    Publication date: August 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 34

    Author(s): Sébastien Hélie , Ron Sun

    This survey paper discusses the topic of autonomous learning in psychologically-oriented cognitive architectures and reviews some of the most popular cognitive architectures used in psychology, namely ACT-R, Soar, and Clarion. Autonomous learning is critical in the development of cognitive agents, and several learning-related desiderata useful for ‘psychological’ cognitive architectures are proposed. This article shows that all the reviewed cognitive architectures include some form of explicit (‘symbolic’) and implicit (‘subsymbolic’) learning. Additionally, ACT-R and Clarion are shown to include a top–down learning algorithm (from explicit to implicit), and Clarion also includes a bottom–up learning process (from implicit to explicit). Two simulation examples are presented with each cognitive architecture to illustrate the autonomous learning capacities of each modeling paradigm. While Clarion is more autonomous (requiring less a priori knowledge), Soar and ACT-R have so far been used in more complex tasks. The presentation concludes with some general considerations for future work.





  • Editorial Board/Publication Information
    Publication date: April 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 33









  • Sexual presen Toward a model inspired by evolutionary psychology
    Publication date: April 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 33

    Author(s): Lilybeth Fontanesi , Patrice Renaud

    Presence is a phenomenon widely studied by different scientific disciplines. It can be defined as the feeling of being immersed in a reality generated by a range of simulation and immersive technologies, like virtual reality (VR) and related technologies. In this paper we explore a particular variety of this feeling, namely sexual presence, using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework. We translate differences between women and men in sexual imagery and in sexual behaviour into a sexual presence model, introducing proto, core and extended sexual presence as conceptual layers explaining presence. Our aim is to give an evolutionary interpretation of sexual presence, in light of recent findings, and to provide some new ideas for future studies.





  • Behavioral science integration: A practical framework of multi-level converging evidence for behavioral science theories
    Publication date: April 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 33

    Author(s): Gary L. Brase

    Several frameworks exist to help science in organizing known information, connecting previously disparate phenomena, promoting understanding, and identifying gaps in knowledge. This paper integrates previous frameworks that have been used in the behavioral sciences to produce a more comprehensive, specific, and complete framework, consonant with the process of scientific discovery as based on multiple, independent, and converging lines of evidence. This multi-level convergence framework is designed specifically for the analysis and understanding of human cognitive/behavioral traits, in contrast to more general frameworks that are designed to be applied relatively widely (such as across all information processing systems or across all biological organisms). This integrated framework overcomes gaps in prior frameworks, provides a more complete picture of the interrelationships between various aspects of the behavioral sciences, and can aid in evaluating theories, both for comparison and identifying gaps in evidentiary support.





  • Positive psychology on character strengths and virtues. A disquieting suggestion
    Publication date: April 2014
    Source:New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 33

    Author(s): Konrad Banicki

    The Values in Action (VIA) classification of character strengths and virtues has been recently proposed by two leading positive psychologists, Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman as “the social science equivalent of virtue ethics.” The very possibility of developing this kind of an “equivalent,” however, is very doubtful in the light of the cogent criticism that has been leveled at modern moral theory by Alasdair MacIntyre as well as the well argued accusations that positive psychology, despite its official normative neutrality, is pervaded by specifically Western individualism and instrumentalism. In order to evaluate whether the VIA project can be considered as substantially rooted in virtue ethical tradition, the classification was assessed against two fundamental features of the classical version of the latter: (1) the substantial interconnectedness of individual virtues, as expressed by the thesis of the unity of virtue, and (2) the constitutive character of the relationship between virtue and happiness. It turned out, in result, that the two above features are not only absent from but also contradicted by the VIA framework with the latter’s: (1′) construal of individual virtues and character strengths as independent variables and (2′) official endorsement of the fact/value distinction. As soon as the arguments for the superiority of the classical virtue ethical perspective are provided, the potential responses available to the VIA’s proponents are discussed.





http://rss.sciencedirect.com/publication/science/0732118X

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>