- Revisiting the 2008 JOB Mission
- Is humor the best medicine? The buffering effect of coping humor on traumatic stressors in firefighters
Although our understanding of workplace stressors has grown across the past 30 years, this research has generally ignored traumatic workplace stressors. This is a serious omission, given that many occupations (e.g., firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and police) are frequently exposed to traumatic stressors. As such, the first purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of exposure to traumatic stressors in firefighters. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), burnout, and absenteeism were investigated as cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Additionally, we sought to investigate coping humor as a mechanism for dealing with traumatic stressors. We frame these expectations by discussing humor from a transactional theory of emotion/coping perspective, as well as through humor’s social bonding feature and its ability to combat the physiological impact of stressors. We surveyed 179 firefighters at two time points on relevant variables, with dependent variables collected at Time 2. The results indicated that traumatic events significantly predicted burnout, PTSD, and absenteeism and that coping humor buffered this relationship for burnout and PTSD. We discuss the implications of these findings and call for more research investigating occupations in which traumatic stressors are a concern, as well as for more integration of humor into the workplace literature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Personality across working life: The longitudinal and reciprocal influences of personality on work
This paper focuses on the role of personality at different stages of people’s working lives. We begin by reviewing the research in industrial, work, and organizational (IWO) psychology regarding the longitudinal and dynamic influences of personality as an independent variable at different career stages, structuring our review around a framework of people’s working lives and careers over time. Next, we review recent studies in the personality and developmental psychology domain regarding the influence of changing life roles on personality. In this domain, personality also serves as a dependent variable. By blending these two domains, it becomes clear that the study of reciprocal effects of work and personality might open a new angle in IWO psychology’s long-standing tradition of personality research. To this end, we outline various implications for conceptual development (e.g., trait stability) and empirical research (e.g., personality and work incongruence). Finally, we discuss some methodological and statistical considerations for research in this new research domain. In the end, our review should enrich the way that IWO psychologists understand personality at work, focusing away from its unidirectional predictivist influence on job performance toward a more complex longitudinal reciprocal interplay of personality and working life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Strategic alignment with organizational priorities and work engagement: A multi-wave analysis
This study advances the limited research on work alignment and work engagement by investigating how perceived alignment of job tasks and organizational strategic priorities (strategic alignment) influences work engagement. Measures of job control and work social support were also included to enable comparisons between strategic alignment and other well-established job resources. A total of 1011 employees of an Australian state police service responded to three electronic, self-report surveys. A reciprocal model was assessed over three waves of data, with varying time lags: 18 (Time 1 to Time 2), 12 (Time 2 to Time 3), and 30 months (Time 1 to Time 3). Longitudinal, reciprocal relationships were observed for work engagement and job control, strategic alignment, and colleague support. Work engagement also predicted supervisor support over time (reverse effect). This study demonstrated that, in addition to job resources, perceived alignment of job tasks and organizational priorities plays an important role in maintaining high levels of work engagement over time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The role of weekly high-activated positive mood, context, and personality in innovative work behavior: A multilevel and interactional model
This article proposed and tested a multilevel and interactional model of individual innovation in which weekly moods represent a core construct between context, personality, and innovative work behavior. Adopting the circumplex model of affect, innovative work behavior is proposed as resulting from weekly positive and high-activated mood. Furthermore, drawing on the Big Five model of personality and cognitive appraisal theory, openness to experience and support for innovation are proposed as individual and contextual variables, respectively, which interplay in this process. Openness to experience interacts with support for innovation leading to high-activated positive mood. Furthermore, openness interacts with these feelings leading to greater levels of innovative work behavior. Overall, the model entails a moderated mediation process where weekly high-activated positive mood represents a crucial variable for transforming contextual and individual resources into innovative outcomes. These propositions were tested and supported using a diary methodology and multilevel structural equation modeling, on the basis of 893 observations of innovative work behavior and moods nested in 10 weekly waves of data. This information was collected from 92 individuals of diverse occupations employed in 73 distinct companies. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Episodic envy and counterproductive work behaviors: Is more justice always good?
The authors examined how perceived event-specific procedural and distributive justice about own and envied others’ outcomes interacts with episodic envy to predict counterproductive work behaviors. Our results were consistent with the attribution model of justice, finding that episodic envy significantly predicted counterproductive work behaviors aimed at envied others in the workplace and that this relationship was more pronounced when perceptions of procedural, but not distributive, justice about own or envied others’ outcomes were high rather than low. We tested a moderated-mediation model in which self-attributions for the outcome mediated the effect of episodic envy on counterproductive work behaviors and that the effect of envy was stronger when perceptions of own or others’ procedural justice were high rather than low. This research contributes to the literature on envy processes in the workplace and is the first to use a specific emotion, envy, as a proxy for a negative outcome in a demonstration of the attribution model of justice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The role of supervisor political skill in mentoring: Dual motivational perspectives
Drawing on self-determination and self-concept-based theories, this study investigated the mediating effects of psychological empowerment and organization-based self-esteem on the relationship between supervisory mentoring and employee performance and the moderating effect of supervisor political skill on the direct and first stage of the indirect effects. Data were obtained from a sample of 330 subordinate–supervisor dyads from the People’s Republic of China. Using PROCESS of conditional indirect effect, we found support for the moderated direct and indirect effects of supervisory mentoring. First, supervisor political skill moderates the direct effect of supervisory mentoring on employee promotability. Second, supervisor political skill moderates the indirect effect of supervisory mentoring on the following: (i) employee promotability via both psychological empowerment and organization-based self-esteem and (ii) contextual performance only via psychological empowerment. These direct and indirect effects of supervisory mentoring are stronger when supervisors demonstrate a higher level of political skill. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Workplace racial/ethnic similarity, job satisfaction, and lumbar back health among warehouse workers: Asymmetric reactions across racial/ethnic groups
Racial and ethnic minority employees constitute a significant proportion of the U.S. workforce. The literature on demographic similarity in the workplace suggests that the proportion of co-workers who share the same racial/ethnic background (racial/ethnic similarity) can influence job attitudes and employee well-being and that the reactions to racial/ethnic similarity may differ between the racially dominant and subordinate groups. This study applies status construction theory to examine the extent to which racial/ethnic similarity is associated with job satisfaction and lumbar back health among warehouse employees. We surveyed 361 warehouse workers (204 whites, 94 African-Americans, and 63 Latino workers) in 68 jobs in nine distribution centers in the United States. Multilevel analyses indicate that white and racial/ethnic minority groups react differently to racial/ethnic similarity. For job satisfaction, white employees experience higher job satisfaction when they are highly racially/ethnically similar to their colleagues, whereas Latino employees experience higher job satisfaction when they are racially/ethnically dissimilar to others. As for lumbar back health, among Latino and African-American employees, higher racial/ethnic similarity is associated with better lumbar back health whereas for white employees, the association is the opposite. Across all groups, moderate levels of racial/ethnic similarity were associated with the best lumbar back health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.