- Work–family conflict and mindfulness: Investigating the effectiveness of a brief training intervention
This experimental switching replications design study examined the effectiveness of a brief mindfulness-based training intervention that included a one-hour mindfulness-based workshop followed by 13 days of behavioral self-monitoring (BSM) in an attempt to reduce work–family conflict. The intervention increased participants’ mindfulness and decreased work-to-family conflict, but did not reduce family-to-work conflict. In addition, those who participated in BSM reported greater mindfulness, less work-to-family conflict, and less family-to-work conflict than did those who did not participate in BSM. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- An organizational ethic of care and employee involvement in sustainability-related behaviors: A social identity perspective
We expand on the emergent research of an ethic of care (EoC) to theorize why and how an organizational EoC fosters employee involvement in sustainability-related behaviors at work. Across two studies, we explore the socio-psychological mechanisms that link an EoC and involvement in sustainability-related behaviors. The results of Study 1, in which we applied an experimental design, indicate that an EoC is significantly related, through employees’ affective reaction towards organizational sustainability, to involvement in sustainability-related behaviors. In Study 2, in which we used time-lagged data, we further drew on social identity theory to suggest that an EoC is both directly and indirectly, through enhanced organizational identification, related to employees’ satisfaction with organizational sustainability. Through these two mechanisms, we explain the process by which an EoC can drive employee involvement in sustainability-related behaviors. These theoretical developments and empirical findings help to better understand the micro-foundations of organizational sustainability by building upon the moral theorizing of care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Targeted workplace incivility: The roles of belongingness, embarrassment, and power
Research to date has largely been unclear about whether a single perpetrator is sufficient to instigate the well-documented negative consequences of workplace incivility. In the current research, we examine the extent to which perceived belongingness and embarrassment mediate the relationship between incivility from a single perpetrator and two important outcomes (job insecurity and somatic symptoms), and the extent to which the perpetrator’s power moderates these relationships. Across two studies using different methods, we find that incidents of single perpetrator incivility are associated with target feelings of isolation and embarrassment, which in turn relate to targets’ perceived job insecurity and somatic symptoms (Studies 1 and 2) both the same day and three days later (Study 2). Moreover, we find that perpetrator power moderates the relationship between incivility and embarrassment, such that targets are more embarrassed when the perpetrator is powerful. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Little things that count: A call for organizational research on microbusinesses
The purpose of this Incubator is to encourage organizational researchers to attend to the most common type of business in the United States—the microbusiness. After defining and describing these businesses, we propose research questions on defining and managing performance, organizational citizenship, and work–family conflict in this novel business setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Picture this: A field experiment of the influence of subtle affective stimuli on employee well-being and performance
Prior literature examining the antecedents of employee affect has largely ignored subtle affective influences in the workplace and their impact on employees’ affective experiences and behaviors. A substantial body of evidence from basic psychology research suggests that individuals’ affect can be influenced by minimal stimulus input. The primary objective of this research is to take an initial step towards understanding the “real-world” impact of subtle affective stimuli in the workplace. Specifically, in a field experiment with a within-subjects design, we collected data from 68 sales representatives and examined the effect of a subtle affective stimulus (i.e., a black-and-white picture of a woman smiling printed on the backdrop of paper–pencil surveys) on employees’ affect, well-being, and performance. Results showed that the smiling picture significantly enhanced participants’ positive affect, which in turn influenced employees’ extra-role performance and emotional exhaustion. The smiling picture also indirectly influenced employees’ in-role performance and emotional exhaustion via negative affect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed at the end of the paper. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Best practice recommendations for scale construction in organizational research: The development and initial validation of the Character Strength Inventory (CSI)
Proper scale development and validation provide the necessary foundation to facilitate future quantitative research in the organizational sciences. Using the framework provided by the Researcher’s Notebook, the purpose of this study is twofold. First, we present a modern summary of best practice procedures for scale development, reliability analysis, and validity analysis. Second, we explain and illustrate these best practice procedures by describing each procedure in the context of developing and psychometrically analyzing a new Character Strength Inventory (CSI). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Using a pattern-oriented approach to study leaders: Implications for burnout and perceived role demand
Using a pattern-oriented approach, we identified clusters of leaders who shared theoretically meaningful combinations of transformational, contingent reward, management by exception active, management by exception passive, and laissez-faire leadership styles. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we examined whether leaders who shared a similar pattern of leadership styles differed from leaders who belonged to other profile groups, with respect to felt burnout and perceived role demands. Hypotheses were tested using a time-lagged field study involving 183 leaders. Using latent profile analyses, we found four theoretically interpretable patterns. Leaders who belonged to the comprehensive cluster (elevated scores on the transformational, contingent reward, and the passive styles; 14.2%) experienced the highest levels of burnout and role demands, whereas those who were disengaged (low scores on all styles; 33.3%) reported the lowest levels. Leaders who exhibited a passive behavioral pattern (elevated scores on management by exception active, management by exception passive, and laissez-faire relative to the other styles; 27.3%) experienced more burnout and role demands than did leaders who exhibited an optimal pattern (elevated scores on transformational and contingent reward styles relative to the passive styles; 25.1%). The theoretical and practical implications of a pattern-oriented approach to leadership research were discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Does job insecurity threaten who you are? Introducing a social identity perspective to explain well-being and performance consequences of job insecurity
This paper introduces a social identity perspective to job insecurity research. Worrying about becoming jobless, we argue, is detrimental because it implies an anticipated membership of a negatively evaluated group—the group of unemployed people. Job insecurity hence threatens a person’s social identity as an employed person. This in turn will affect well-being and job performance. A three-wave survey study amongst 377 British employees supports this perspective. Persons who felt higher levels of job insecurity were more likely to report a weaker social identity as an employed person. This effect was found to be stable over time and also held against a test of reverse causality. Furthermore, social identity as an employed person influenced well-being and in-role job performance and mediated the effect of job insecurity on these two variables over time. Different to the expectations, social identity as an employed person and organisational proactivity were not connected. The findings deliver interesting evidence for the role of social identity as an employed person in the relationships between job insecurity and its consequences. Theoretically, this perspective illustrates the individual and group-related nature of job insecurity and offers a novel way of connecting work situations with individual well-being, behaviour and attitudes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.