- Feeling interrupted—Being responsive: How online messages relate to affect at work
Being constantly connected to others via e-mail and other online messages is increasingly typical for many employees. In this paper, we develop and test a model that specifies how interruptions by online messages relate to negative and positive affect. We hypothesize that perceived interruptions by online messages predict state negative affect via time pressure and that perceived interruptions predict state positive affect via responsiveness to these online messages and perceived task accomplishment. A daily survey study with 174 employees (a total of 811 day-level observations) provided support for our hypotheses at the between-person and within-person level. In addition, perceived interruptions showed a negative direct association with perceived task accomplishment. Our study highlights the importance of being responsive to online messages and shows that addressing only the negative effects of perceived interruptions does not suffice to understand the full impact of interruptions by online messages in modern jobs.
- The role of self-regulation in the relationship between abusive supervision and job tension
Trait and state self-regulation both have critical influences on workplace behavior, but their influences are thought to operate quite differently. We draw from social exchange and ego depletion theories to investigate the relationship between trait and state self-regulation, as well as how they differentially affect the relationship between subordinates’ perceptions of abusive supervision and job tension. Specifically, we examine (a) how the interaction between abusive supervision and trait self-regulation affects job tension and (b) how state self-regulation mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and job tension. Using 3 studies that include an experiment (n = 81) and 2 field studies with cross-sectional (n = 157) and time-separated (n = 109) data, we demonstrate that the interaction between abusive supervision and trait self-regulation increases experienced job tension for subordinates who report higher levels of abusive supervision and trait self-regulation than others. Also, we provide evidence that abusive supervision is indirectly associated with job tension through state self-regulation. This study’s findings have important implications for abusive supervision and self-regulation research, as well as social exchange and ego depletion theories, because we extend our understanding of how trait and state self-regulation affect cognitive responses associated with abusive supervision.
- The microlevel actions undertaken by owner-managers in improving the sustainability practices of cultural and creative small and medium enterprises: A United Kingdom–Italy comparison
This article discusses microlevel actions undertaken by owner-managers, and how such actions affect stakeholders in enhancing the sustainability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the knowledge on which is lacking in the extant literature. The paper, by adopting an inductive analytical approach, draws key insights from the literature on microfoundations and sustainability and evidence from representatives of 5 Cultural and Creative Industry SMEs in Italy and of 5 in the United Kingdom. The findings suggest that owner-managers play a crucial role when engaging in sustainability activities jointly with employees and other stakeholders, through which individual-level actions enhance collective organizational-level sustainability practices. The U.K. and Italian cases highlight 2 contrasting approaches to dealing with sustainability; thus, the paper contributes to the emerging literature on SME microfoundations and sustainability.
- Personality-based selection of entrepreneurial borrowers to reduce credit risk: Two studies on prediction models in low- and high-stakes settings in developing countries
Small business growth is critical for economic development and poverty reduction in emerging markets, yet there remains an over $2 trillion gap in financing these entrepreneurs. This study explores the potential of personality assessments to help lenders solve this problem and lend to more entrepreneurs and contributes to psychological selection research by examining the effect of high versus low stakes on response distortions and predictive validity in a new area—entrepreneurship with a new dependent variable—paying back credit. Results of Study 1 show that personality assessments are indeed related to credit risk, but response patterns depend significantly on whether or not the assessment is taken as a mandatory part of the credit application (high stakes) or as an optional research survey after the credit has already been provided (low stakes), and predictive relationships do not generalize between these situations. In Study 2, the distributions of personality dimensions relevant for entrepreneurs applying for a credit—conscientiousness, extraversion, and integrity—are shown to be different for applicants when in high- versus low-stakes settings. These findings convey several implications for the research on and practice of lending to entrepreneurs in emerging markets and offer new directions for future research.
- Emotional intelligence and individual differences in affective processes underlying task-contingent conscientiousness
Organisational researchers have recently begun to focus on the more dynamic aspects of personality in the workplace. The present study examines individual differences in the affective processes that underlie one such dynamic construct, task-contingent conscientiousness. Using experience sampling data collected over 3 weeks from 201 managers, we show (a) that individuals differ substantially from each other in the paths that connect task demand, positive and negative affect, and conscientious behaviour; (b) that these individual differences cohere to define person types or classes that represent meaningful differences in the extent to which task-contingent conscientiousness is mediated affectively; and (c) that emotional intelligence increases the likelihood of membership in classes that are characterised by affectively mediated effects. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed with reference to the cognitive-affective personality system model, research on the consequences of affect in the workplace, and the literature on emotional intelligence. Practical applications are suggested for managers who wish to use personality assessment for developmental purposes, especially in relation to facilitating behavioural change.
- When can culturally diverse teams be more creative? The role of leaders' benevolent paternalism
The current research examines the conditions under which cross-cultural teams can realize their creative potential—a consequence of their cultural diversity. We propose that in more culturally diverse teams, team members are less open when communicating with each other, which impairs the team’s ability to elaborate on the information contributed by different members, ultimately limiting team creativity. We further theorize that leaders’ benevolent paternalism, a leadership style that is particularly prevalent in East Asian contexts, can reduce the negative consequence of intercultural diversity on intercultural communication openness. On the basis of multiwave, multisource data from 48 culturally diverse teams in China, we found that perceived intercultural diversity is negatively related to intercultural communication openness, which, in turn, is positively related to information elaboration, and ultimately, team creativity. Leader benevolent paternalism attenuates the negative relationship between intercultural diversity and intercultural communication openness. These findings enrich the literature on intercultural diversity by calling attention to communication-related obstacles.
- Why seeking feedback from diverse sources may not be sufficient for stimulating creativity: The role of performance dynamism and creative time pressure
We explore how the impact of seeking feedback from different sources (i.e., feedback source variety) on employee creativity is shaped by perceptions of the work environment. Specifically, we argue that two contextual factors, namely, performance dynamism (Study 1) and creative time pressure (Study 2), moderate the relationship between feedback source variety and creativity such that under conditions of high performance dynamism and low creative time pressure, individuals benefit from diverse feedback information. In Study 1 (N = 1,031), the results showed that under conditions of high performance dynamism, the relationship between feedback source variety and self-reported creativity was nonlinear, with employee creativity exponentially increasing as a function of feedback source variety. Similarly, in Study 2 (N = 181), we found that under conditions of low creative time pressure, the relationship between feedback source variety and employee creativity was nonlinear, with supervisor-rated creative performance exponentially increasing at higher levels of feedback source variety. Such results highlight that the relationship between feedback source variety and creative performance is affected by the perceptions of the work environment in which feedback is sought.
- A meta-analysis of the antecedents of work–family enrichment
This study meta-analytically examined theoretically derived antecedents of both directions of work–family enrichment (sometimes labeled facilitation or positive spillover), namely, work–family enrichment and family–work enrichment. Contextual and personal characteristics specific to each domain were examined. Resource-providing (e.g., social support and work autonomy) and resource-depleting (e.g., role overload) contextual characteristics were considered. Domain-specific personal characteristics included the individuals’ psychological involvement in each domain, the centrality of each domain, and work engagement. Results based on 767 correlations from 171 independent studies published between 1990 and 2016 indicate that several contextual and personal characteristics have significant relationships with enrichment. Although those associated with work tend to have stronger relationships with work–family enrichment and those associated with family tend to have stronger relationships with family–work enrichment, several antecedent variables have significant relationships with both directions of enrichment. Resource-providing contextual characteristics tend to have stronger relationships with enrichment than do resource-depleting characteristics. There was very little evidence of gender being a moderator of relationships between contextual characteristics and enrichment. Lastly, meta-analytic structural equation modeling provided evidence that a theoretical path model wherein work engagement mediates between several contextual characteristics and enrichment is largely generalizable across populations.