- When expressions of fake emotions elicit negative reactions: The role of observers' dialectical thinking
Fake displays of emotions are common in social and organizational settings. It is therefore important to understand their consequences. To reconcile mixed previous findings, we develop a model in which the consequences of expressing fake emotions depend on the observers’ level of dialectical thinking, a cognitive style characterized by acceptance of inconsistencies. We propose that observers lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking may infer that interaction partners who fake emotions are untrustworthy and, in turn, react negatively. We found support for our model in 2 studies. In a field fundraising experiment (Study 1), fundraisers who displayed fake (vs. genuine) happiness received smaller monetary donations and elicited lower intentions to volunteer from donors lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking. In a laboratory negotiation experiment (Study 2), negotiators who displayed fake anger (vs. genuine anger or no emotion) were trusted less and received higher demands from counterparts lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking. Trust mediated the moderating effect of dialecticism on the relation between fake anger (vs. genuine anger and no emotion) and demands. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
- Why dual leaders will drive innovation: Resolving the exploration and exploitation dilemma with a conservation of resources solution
Using conservation of resources theory, we challenge traditional unity of command models of leadership and propose that a dual-leadership framework can serve as a potential solution to the inherent challenges of innovation. Leading for innovation demands are depicted as uniquely disparate from other forms of leadership, resulting in several types of conflict and resource depletion for individual leaders. We contend that this exploration–exploitation role conflict and the resulting need to manage incongruent role identities produce stress, strain, and resource depletion that in turn hamper innovative goal achievement for both a single leader directly and via subordinates more indirectly. We propose, however, that as an extension of the resource investment tenet of the conservation of resources theory, a dual-leadership approach may alleviate many of these challenges for innovation. Specifically, the addition of a second leader can add resources to innovation and in turn decrease the role conflict inherent in managing the generation and implementation of creative ideas. Limitations and areas for future research are offered.
- Loyal rebels? A test of the normative conflict model of constructive deviance
Constructive deviance is a voluntary behavior that violates organizational rules but is conducted with honorable intentions to benefit the organization or its stakeholders. Despite emerging interest in this behavior, the antecedents of constructive deviance remain unclear, with particular ambiguity concerning the relationship between organizational identity and constructive deviance. In this article, we address this ambiguity with the normative conflict model, which posits that organizational identity drives constructive deviance in the workplace only when people perceive normative conflict with organizational rules. In Studies 1a and 1b, we develop and validate a measure of normative conflict. In Study 2, we conduct a preliminary test of the model with employed students and find that identity is positively related to constructive deviance only when normative conflict is high. In Study 3, we replicate and extend the model to show that the moderating effect of normative conflict is mediated by experienced psychological discomfort and that organizational identity is positively related to constructive deviance among working adults only when discomfort is high. In total, our findings demonstrate the utility of the normative conflict model for explaining when constructive deviance is mostly likely to occur in the workplace.
- Supervisors' emotional exhaustion and abusive supervision: The moderating roles of perceived subordinate performance and supervisor self-monitoring
Drawing from conservation of resources theory, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of abusive supervision. Results across 2 independent field studies within a manufacturing context (Study 1) and a customer service context (Study 2) consistently demonstrated a 3-way interaction pattern, such that supervisors’ experiences of emotional exhaustion, perceived subordinate performance, and self-monitoring were jointly associated with subordinates’ abusive supervision perceptions. A supplementary scenario experiment further corroborated this pattern. Together, the present studies illustrate a contingency model of abusive supervision’s origins, highlighting emotional exhaustion as an important risk factor that is particularly likely to trigger abusive behavior among supervisors with lower (rather than higher) self-monitoring who are faced with a relatively underperforming subordinate. As such, this research advances the abusive supervision literature by offering new insights into the complex resource conservation processes that may give rise to subordinates’ abuse perceptions.
- Tired of innovations? Learned helplessness and fatigue in the context of continuous streams of innovation implementation
The business environment faced by contemporary organizations is highly uncertain and constantly changing. Thus, organizations have adopted and implemented a continuous stream of innovations to achieve sustainable growth and survival. Considering the demand for additional resources to implement innovations, the present study explores organizational conditions that may lead to innovation-targeted burnout and fatigue among employees, which impede their active participation in a subsequent innovation. To this end, we propose a theoretical framework that elucidates the effects of previous innovations on the subsequent implementation behavior of employees. We identify two dimensions of the cognitive appraisal of previous innovations (i.e., intensity and failure) that shape employees’ beliefs regarding innovations, such as innovation-targeted helplessness, which ultimately results in innovation fatigue. Data collected from 84 managers and 397 employees of Chinese and Korean organizations prove the significant role of employee perceptions of previous innovations in shaping the innovation-targeted helplessness and fatigue of employees, which ultimately affect employee behavior toward a subsequent innovation. The present conceptual and empirical analyses suggest that given continuous streams of innovation implementation, managers should carefully consider employee’s perceptions of previous innovations (i.e., intensity and failure) for successful implementation of a subsequent innovation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Isms and schisms: A meta-analysis of the prejudice-discrimination relationship across racism, sexism, and ageism
Racism, sexism, and ageism persist in modern day organizations and may translate into workplace discrimination, which can undermine organizational effectiveness. We provide the first meta-analysis comparing the relationships between these three types of prejudice (racism, sexism, and ageism) and three types of workplace discrimination (selection, performance evaluation, and opposition to diversity-supportive policies). Across outcomes, racism was associated with workplace discrimination, whereas sexism was not. Ageism was associated with discriminatory selection and opposition to organizational policies supporting older workers; however, ageism was not related to discriminatory performance evaluation. Consistent with prior research and theory, Implicit Association Test measures were related to subtle discrimination (opposition to diversity-supportive policies) but not deliberate discrimination (selection and performance evaluation). Finally, prejudice was more strongly associated with discrimination against real as compared with hypothetical targets. Implications for organizational researchers and practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Getting away from them all: Managing exhaustion from social interaction with telework
Drawing on the conservation of resources and recovery literatures, we examine how social job characteristics—interpersonal interaction, job interdependence, and external interaction—relate to work exhaustion. We then explore the efficacy of a part-time telework (PTT) practice in alleviating work exhaustion associated with social interaction. Study 1 is a within-subject assessment of work exhaustion before and after a PTT practice; participants are 51 information technology professionals in a financial services firm. Study 2 is a between-subject assessment of work exhaustion among part-time teleworkers and non-teleworkers; participants are 258 U.S. workers spanning a variety of industries. Study 2 replicated the model tested in Study 1, and we extended the conceptualization of interpersonal interaction to examine both quantity and quality of interaction. In both studies, PTT provided a recovery opportunity, attenuating the relationship between interpersonal interaction and work exhaustion; however, after PTT but not before, work exhaustion increased as external interaction increased. In Study 2, work exhaustion decreased as interaction quality increased; in contrast, work exhaustion increased as interaction quantity increased and PTT attenuated this relationship. Our recommendations aim to help balance telework practices in light of social job characteristics and their opposing effects on work exhaustion. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fifty shades of green: How microfoundations of sustainability dynamic capabilities vary across organizational contexts
Because making progress on sustainability-related challenges will require organizational change for most organizations, understanding sustainability dynamic capabilities is of utmost importance. In this theoretical paper, we aim to identify the microfoundations of such sustainability dynamic capabilities on the one hand but, consistent with recent work in this research stream, we do so in a way that is sensitive to the dynamism of the organizational environment. We propose that the microfoundations of sustainability dynamic capabilities will take different forms in different contexts. We contrast moderately dynamic contexts characterized by frequent yet relatively predictable change with highly dynamic contexts in which changes are rapid and not predictable. Achieving sustainability in these different types of contexts poses different types of challenges, relies on different forms of employee behaviors, and is consequently enabled by different individual-level characteristics and different organizational practices and processes. Our paper calls for a more serious consideration of context in investigating how employees’ behaviors can affect sustainability at the organizational level, and outlines the implications for organizational policy and practice. We explore directions for future interdisciplinary research on sustainability that focuses on individuals and their interactions while also taking the environment within which organizations operate into account. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.