- Imagined contact can be more effective for participants with stronger initial prejudices
Imagined contact is an intervention that combines the prejudice-reduction of intergroup contact with the easy, low-risk application of imagery-based techniques. Accordingly, it can be applied where direct contact is difficult or risky. However, a possible limitation of imagined contact is that it may not be effective for participants with stronger initial prejudices, which would limit its usefulness and application. Two experiments (N1 = 103, N2 = 95) investigated whether initial prejudice moderated imagined contact’s effects on explicit attitudes, behavioral intentions (Experiment 1), implicit attitudes, and petition-signing behaviors (Experiment 2) toward two different outgroups. In both experiments, imagined contact was more effective when initial prejudice was higher. Implications for imagined contact theory and application are discussed.
- Reducing workplace bias toward people with disabilities with the use of imagined contact
In this research we test the effectiveness of imagined intergroup contact as an intervention that improves attitudes toward people with disabilities in organizational settings. We conducted two experimental studies with the aim of examining the bias-reduction effects of imagined contact on attitudes toward people with disabilities. Furthermore, we examined how imagined contact can be most effective in improving attitudes in work situations. Both studies yielded evidence that the imagined contact intervention significantly impacted on two dependent variables: expected work-related outcomes and support for the rights of people with disabilities, via enhancing the belief in performance level. We discuss the results in the context of developing effective and accessible intervention tools, which can be used in workplace trainings, and can promote anti-discriminatory policies in organizations.
- Does paternalistic leadership promote innovative behavior? The interaction between authoritarianism and benevolence
We theorize about the separate and interactive effects of the two primary elements of paternalistic leadership: authoritarianism and benevolence. Accordingly, we test a mediating mechanism through which these components of paternalistic leadership stimulate employee innovative and knowledge-sharing behaviors. A multi-source and multi-level study involving 302 employee-supervisor-peer triads in 60 Chinese technology-based organizations supported the association between the interaction of benevolent and authoritarian leadership and employee affective trust, innovative behavior, and knowledge sharing. Moreover, affective trust mediated the interaction of benevolence and authoritarianism on employee innovative behavior and knowledge sharing. We suggest that, the two constructs underlying paternalistic leadership might promote employee breakthrough behaviors across cultures. That is, their demanding and yet selfless stance turns authoritarian-benevolent leaders into prototypes of the followers’ aspirational social identity.
- Stereotype-based judgments of child welfare issues in cases of parent criminality
Approximately 2.5 million children in the European Union and the United States have incarcerated parents, the vast majority of which are fathers. Three experiments modeled on real legal cases (total N = 881) investigated how parent gender affects decisions regarding contact between incarcerated parents and their children. Results showed that measures facilitating relationship maintenance in relevant domains (sentence length, visitation rights, and alleviating postsentencing conditions) were supported less when they involved a father despite identical prior information about the legal case. Mediation analyses suggest two distinct processes explaining these disparities: participants’ crime-related attributions, and their stereotypical expectations about the different familial roles of mothers and fathers. Practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
- Healthy eating: A beneficial role for perceived norm conflict?
Normative influence on dietary decision making was assessed as a function of the referent informational influence model within an extended theory of planned behavior framework. In a longitudinal design, university students (N = 141) completed measures of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, referent group norms, and intentions toward healthy eating, with healthy eating behavior reported 2 weeks later (n = 82). A distinction was made between injunctive and descriptive norms, in line with norm focus theory. The extended theory of planned behavior and referent informational influence models were partially supported. An interaction between group injunctive and descriptive norms emerged such that misaligned group norms were associated with healthier eating behavior than aligned group norms (both supportive and unsupportive). Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
- Developmental trajectories to heroin dependence: Theoretical and clinical issues
We have built up a great deal of insight into the early developmental trajectories that lead to heroin use. These cluster under five domains: social disadvantage, parental drug use/psychopathology, childhood abuse and neglect, early onset psychopathology and antisocial behaviors, and a developmental sequence of drug onsets. While not all heroin users have these risk factors, the broad clinical picture shows these early correlates to be the predominant presentation. We discuss each of the early psychosocial correlates of heroin dependence, as well as possible early interventions. Given the chronicity of heroin dependence, interventions to prevent heroin use emerging would reduce the considerable burden of disease associated with the disorder.
- Dehumanizing but competent: The impact of gender, illness type, and emotional expressiveness on patient perceptions of doctors
This study is the first attempt to investigate men’s and women’s anticipated reactions to a consultation with a doctor holding either a dehumanizing or humanistic approach to patient treatment. Participants (N = 375) read a vignette depicting a doctor’s treatment philosophy—emphasizing either the metaphor of the body as a machine (dehumanizing condition) or emphasizing individual humanness (humanizing condition). They then imagined consulting the doctor about a psychological or physical illness. Although, medical dehumanization had undesirable consequences, some men rated the dehumanizing doctor as more competent than the humanizing doctor. These were men who were (a) emotionally expressive and seeking help for a psychological illness, and (b) men low in emotional expressiveness seeking help for a physical illness.
- From “I” to “We”: Different forms of identity, emotion, and belief predict victim support volunteerism among nominal and active supporters
Understanding how to attract and maintain volunteers is crucial for the operation of victim support organizations. We propose that volunteerism can be understood in a similar way as collective action. Active (N = 99) and nominal supporters (N = 134) completed measures of identities (personal, social, and organizational), emotions (sympathy, outrage, and pride), and efficacy beliefs (self-, group, and organizational). The results revealed a different pattern of predictors of volunteerism for the two samples. Among nominal supporters, commitment to volunteerism was predicted by personal identity (“I”), sympathy, and self-efficacy; among the actively engaged, volunteerism was predicted by social identity (“we”), outrage, and self-efficacy. These results suggest that engagement with volunteerism is associated with qualitatively different processes for those nominally versus actively supportive of volunteer efforts.