- When leaders are not who they appear: The effects of leader disclosure of a concealable stigma on follower reactions
Two studies examined follower reactions to disclosure of concealable stigma (i.e., transgender identity) by a leader. Using 109 employed participants, Study 1 showed followers rated leaders disclosing a stigma less likable and effective. This effect was both direct and indirect through relational identification with the leader. Using 206 employed participants, Study 2 found when a leader’s stigma was involuntarily found out and disclosed later they received lower ratings of likability and effectiveness compared to leaders who voluntarily came out and disclosed earlier. Method (found out vs. came out) and timing of disclosure (later vs. earlier) had direct relationships with ratings of likability and effectiveness and method of disclosure had an indirect relationship with the outcomes via relational identification.
- Weight beliefs and messages: Mindsets predict body-shame and anti-fat attitudes via attributions
In two samples (N = 247, N = 291), we examined the link between beliefs and messages about the changeable (incremental theory) vs. fixed (entity theory) nature of weight, attributions for weight, and body shame. We recruited participants using online sampling, employing a correlational design in Study 1 and an experimental design in Study 2. Across both studies, we found evidence for the stigma-asymmetry effect—incremental, relative to entity beliefs/messages of weight predicted both (a) stronger onset responsibility attributions, indirectly increasing body shame and (b) stronger offset efficacy attributions, indirectly decreasing body shame. Study 2 replicated the stigma-asymmetry effect with anti-fat attitudes. We discuss implications for public health obesity messages with the goal of reducing stigma.
- Context and alcohol consumption behaviors affect inhibitory control
Contrasting the traditional focus on alcohol-related visual images, this study examined the impact of both alcohol-related auditory cues and visual stimuli on inhibitory control (IC). Fifty-eight participants completed a Go/No-Go Task, with alcohol-related and neutral visual stimuli presented with or without short or continuous auditory bar cues. Participants performed worse when presented with alcohol-related images and auditory cues. Problematic alcohol consumption and higher effortful control (EC) were associated with better IC performance for alcohol images. It is postulated that those with higher EC may be better able to ignore alcohol-related stimuli, while those with problematic alcohol consumption are unconsciously less attuned to these. This runs contrary to current dogma and highlights the importance of examining both auditory and visual stimuli when investigating IC.
- Positive and negative intergroup contact predict Black and White Americans' judgments about police violence against Black Americans
We examined whether past positive and negative interracial contact predict people’s views of interracial police violence. White (N = 207) and Black (N = 116) Americans reported on their past intergroup experiences before viewing information about one of two true events involving the death of a Black man at the hands of a White police officer. For White Americans, negative contact predicted a reluctance to blame the officer and a willingness to believe that people’s responses to the events involved “playing the race card.” For Black Americans, positive contact predicted marginally less officer blame and lower beliefs that the victim was racially profiled. This suggests the potential for a vicious cycle, whereby past contact experiences color perceptions of intergroup conflict in the present.
- To trust or not to trust: How self-construal affects consumer responses to interpersonal influence
Although people generally prefer persuasive messages that align with their self-construal, the present research explores a seemingly paradoxical situation wherein mismatched message that does not align with people’s self-construal is positively received. Given sufficient cognitive capacity to trigger persuasion knowledge—the knowledge of persuasion tactics that are encountered in the marketplace, the use of an individually focused persuasion attempt on consumers with an interdependent self-construal results in greater levels of trust in the sales agent. In contrast, consumers with an independent self-construal respond similarly to different types of persuasion attempts. Persuasion knowledge is a mechanism for variations in trust. The findings replicate those of prior work, and the robustness of the effects is confirmed via small-scale meta-analysis.
- Looking forward to helping: The effects of prospection on prosocial intentions and behavior
Three experiments were conducted to further examine how prospection (i.e., thinking about the future) fosters prosociality. In Study 1 (n = 238), participants who wrote about the future expressed significantly stronger prosocial intentions than people who wrote about the past. In a similar study (n = 87), participants who wrote about the future were significantly more likely to behave prosocially than those who wrote about the past. In Study 3 (n = 203), mediational analyses revealed that prospection and optimism each predicted positive affect, which then predicted stronger prosocial intentions. These findings extend previous work by demonstrating that prospection enhances general prosocial intentions, that this effect extends to prosocial behavior, and that the effect is partially mediated by positive affect.
- Sorry seems to be the hardest word: Cultural differences in apologizing effectively
Apologies can have desirable effects on the reduction of anger and may foster forgiveness. Yet, we know little about the effectiveness of apologies across different cultures. In this research, we distinguished two important components of apologies: admission of blame by the self and the expression of remorse for the plight of the other. We investigated how these two components resonate with cultural values associated with dignity and honor. Results revealed that although an apology increased forgiveness in both cultures, honor-culture members tended to forgive less and retaliate more than dignity-culture members, after an apology. This cultural difference was mediated by the extent to which honor-culture (vs. dignity-culture) members perceived the apology to express (less) remorse and thus be (less) sincere.
- Sexualized images in professional contexts: Effects on anticipated experiences and perceived climate for women and men
Academic conferences are important settings for socialization, scholarly engagement, and networking. Two studies explore the effects of ambient cues in such settings on women’s and men’s climate perceptions. Participants (undergraduates in Study 1, graduate students in Study 2) viewed a flyer advertising a professional mixer that included an eroticized image or a control image. Women and men expected a sexualized atmosphere, and women in particular anticipated lower feelings of competence and greater discomfort and objectification at the event advertised with the erotic image. The negative effect of erotic flyer exposure on competence was mediated by discomfort (Study 1) and objectification (Study 2), particularly in women. Results are interpreted in light of pipeline leakage and women’s success in the Academy.