Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice

  • Diversity and team creativity: Exploring underlying mechanisms. 20171204
    Past research demonstrates that the relationship between distinct subgroups within teams can be improved using interventions that emphasize commonalities, such as a superordinate team identity. By comparing the creative outcomes of 51 racio-ethnically diverse teams, comprised of both majority and minority racio-ethnic subgroups, this study shows when a common ingroup identity will lead to higher creativity. We hypothesize that there is a combined effect of racio-ethnic identity and superordinate team identity salience on the usefulness as well as the novelty of team’s ideas. Accordingly, we found that superordinate team identity salience had a positive effect on novelty, but only when differences between subgroups were also made salient. There was no joint influence on the usefulness of ideas. Furthermore, our results showed that the relationship between the simultaneous salience of the superordinate team and racio-ethnic identities on the novelty of ideas generated was mediated by team member’s perception of the team as unified and inclusive. Collectively, racio-ethnic subgroup and superordinate identity salience foster a feeling of a common “we,” which in turn support the generation of novel ideas. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Social contexts and personal moral motives reduce implicit prejudice: A direct comparison. 20171204
    The current research extends previous work (e.g., Blair, 2002; Lai et al., 2014; van Nunspeet, Ellemers, & Derks, 2015) by directly comparing the effectiveness of different contextual factors and personal motives on the reduction of implicit bias toward Muslim women in a 2 × 2 × 2 research design. Non-Muslim participants performed an implicit association test (IAT) for which the implications for their morality or competence were emphasized, and while their performance was evaluated by a minimal ingroup or outgroup member, who was either presented as a member of the devalued group (a woman with a headscarf) or not (a women without a headscarf). Study 1 revealed that performance monitoring by the evaluator with a headscarf resulted in significant bias reduction. Interestingly, in case of performance monitoring by an evaluator without a headscarf, emphasizing the moral implications of participant’s task performance was as effective. In Study 2, we replicated the first finding and found no significant bias toward Muslim women when participants’ IAT performance was evaluated by a woman with a headscarf. Additionally, the prolonged version of the IAT used in this study resulted in a further decrease in bias when the evaluator with a headscarf was presented as a minimal ingroup member. Important implications of the effectiveness of these contextual factors and personal motives are discussed with regard to their difference in level of applicability and implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Perceived self-to-other similarity as a mediator of the effects of gender and racial composition on identification in small groups. 20171204
    Two group studies tested the mediating role of perceived diversity in the link between actual demographic composition and an individual’s identification with a small group. In these studies, a new type of dyadic perceived diversity—self-to-other perceived similarity—is introduced and measured. Further, a group actor partner interdependence model (GAPIM) approach was used to test mediation of the link between actual demographic composition and identification by perceived self-to-other similarity. In Study 1, 4- and 5-person small groups varying in gender composition interacted face-to-face. Results showed mediation of the effect of similarity in gender on group identification by self-to-other similarity. In Study 2, race and gender were experimentally manipulated by showing pictures of other group members with whom the participants expected to interact. Study 2 found evidence for mediation of the effect of gender similarity as well as effects of racial composition on identification by perceived self-to-other similarity. Complexities due to intersecting identities and levels of analysis inherent in psychological group research are discussed and future research directions are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Beyond the irony of intergroup contact: The effects of contact and threat on political participation and support for political violence in Northern Ireland. 20171204
    Research has suggested that intergroup contact can ironically lead to a reduction in commitment to social change and that threat can play an important role in this process. In post-agreement societies, however, characterized more so by symbolic rather than material conflict, the role that intergroup contact and threat play in social action may be particularly complex. This article examines intergroup contact, intergroup threat, support for political violence, and political participation among a student sample (n = 152) of Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland. Results show that contact is associated with lower symbolic and realistic threat for both groups and to lower levels of support for political violence but not to political participation. Symbolic threat mediated the association between contact and support for political violence and between contact and political participation for the Protestant majority group only. This suggests that contact may have a positive effect upon group relations but that this is dependent upon status and the social–political context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

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