- Competent Enough to Be Heard? Technicians’ Expectations about Local Stakeholders in Participative Processes
The involvement of citizens in environmental decision processes is difficult to implement, and little is known about the psychological mediators for the technicians’ resistance. We tested the hypothesis that the subtle denial of human attributes of local stakeholders (dehumanisation) produces negative expectations regarding the engagement of communities in the decision process, which may ultimately legitimise their exclusion. Three studies were conducted testing this hypothesis, all involving professionals with experience in implementing local projects. In the first two correlational studies we showed that a deficit view regarding local communities, a dehumanised idea of those residents and an unfavourable attitude towards their participation were associated. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted, manipulating the images of the residents in a 2 warmth (high vs low) × 2 competence (high vs low) between-subjects design. Results showed that participants that read a description of the local community as being incompetent developed expectations of more violent and less conventional forms of protest. Moreover, the expectation of conventional protest procedures was associated with stronger support for their engagement in the process. These studies show the importance of psychosocial mediators from the technicians’ perspective: an imagined competent public is easier to include in the decision process.
- Data Quality from Crowdsourced Surveys: A Mixed Method Inquiry into Perceptions of Amazon's Mechanical Turk Masters
Researchers in the social sciences are increasingly turning to online data collection panels for research purposes. While there is evidence that crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk can produce data as reliable as more traditional survey collection methods, little is known about Amazon’s Mechanical Turk’s most experienced respondents, their perceptions of crowdsourced data, and the degree to which these affect data quality. The current study utilises both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate Amazon’s Mechanical Turk Masters’ perceptions and attitudes related to the data quality (e.g. inattention). Recommendations for researchers using crowdsourcing data are provided.
- The Differential Impacts of Two Forms of Insufficient Effort Responding
Recent years have seen a renewed interest in insufficient effort responding (IER). Previous research has demonstrated that IER can have detrimental effects on survey research ranging from introducing untrustworthy data to influencing psychometric and statistical results. The present simulations examine two forms of IER, straightlining (SL) and random responding (RR), in an attempt to determine whether the presence of these response patterns have differential impacts on data. In three studies, we explore the combined effects of extreme SL and RR, the effects of full and partial RR, and the effects of full and partial SL on scale characteristics such as inter-item correlations, alpha, and component structure. We also explore how various IER response distributions may influence these statistics. Empirical results demonstrate a tendency for SL to increase and RR to decrease the magnitude of inter-item correlations, alpha, and the first component eigenvalue. Results also indicate that the impact of SL may be more pronounced than the impact of RR in the organisational sciences. It is important for researchers to consider the type of IER in addition to the prevalence of IER in a sample prior to conducting statistical analyses.
- A Configurational Perspective on the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Employees' Change-Supportive Intentions
This study aims to deepen the understanding of the psychological processes involved in the formation of change-supportive intentions by adopting a configurational perspective. To investigate potential configurations in relevant psychological processes suggested by the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, ), classical linear analytic methods are supplemented by the application of two case-centred methods: latent profile analysis (LPA) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The study uses data from two measurement times drawing on employees of a city council (t1: N = 1,589; t2: N = 1,524) undergoing complex and continuous organisational changes. While the case-centred results from LPA and fsQCA generally accord well with the results from regression analysis, they consistently highlight the relevance of configurational patterns. Specifically, LPA and fsQCA reveal that different combinations of change-related attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control relate to the presence or absence of high supportive intentions. These results provide valuable insights for fostering employees’ change-supportive intentions. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that case-centred analytical methods can essentially enrich research and theory-building in change management as well as in the field of behavioural intention formation in general.
- Psychological Flexibility at Work and Employees' Proactive Work Behaviour: Cross-Level Moderating Role of Leader Need for Structure
How to promote employees to be proactive behaviourally is a significant issue in the literature because it would benefit organisations in several ways. Drawing on the acceptance and commitment model, we proposed a new antecedent, psychological flexibility that might contribute to employees’ proactive work behaviour. Furthermore, we investigated how the contextual role of supervisor need for structure exhibits a cross-level moderating effect on the relationship between employee psychological flexibility at work and proactive work behaviour based on interactionism. Data from 241 full-time employees and their corresponding 45 managers indicated that employee psychological flexibility was positively associated with proactive work behaviour. More importantly, the supervisor need for structure played a moderating role, suggesting that employees would demonstrate greater proactive work behaviour especially when the supervisors have a high need for structure. Implications for psychological flexibility, proactivity, and person-situation interactional research are discussed.
- How Do Coworkers “Make the Place”? Examining Coworker Conflict and the Value of Harmony in China and the United States
The goal of this study was to test cross-cultural/cross-national differences in the association between coworker interpersonal justice and coworker conflict and the implications of such differences for employee effectiveness. Harmony is a central value in China but is less important in the United States, and the individual value of harmony may influence Chinese and US employees differently in their response to low levels of coworker interpersonal justice. We collected data from employees and their coworkers in China (214 dyads) and the US (301 dyads). There were three major findings. First, coworker interpersonal justice was negatively related to coworker conflict. Second, coworker conflict significantly mediated coworker interpersonal justice in relation to the employee effectiveness variables of task performance, organisational citizenship behaviours, and counterproductive work behaviours. Finally, in the Chinese sample, harmony significantly buffered the indirect effect of coworker interpersonal justice on employee effectiveness via coworker conflict, whereas in the US sample, harmony significantly intensified the indirect effect of coworker interpersonal justice on employee effectiveness via coworker conflict.
- Applying Social Psychology to Prevent Careless Responding during Online Surveys
A major threat to data quality in online surveys is careless responding (CR; Meade & Craig, ) or insufficient effort responding (e.g. Bowling, Huang, Bragg, Khazon, Liu, & Blackmore, ). In three studies, we use social psychological theories to develop and test three prevention strategies (Ward & Pond III, ) related to increasing respondent motivation to respond carefully. Study 1 presented control, scripted, or video-recorded instructions designed to increase the social influence of survey administrators on survey participants. Participants in the control group were significantly more likely to admit to CR than the script and video groups. Compared with the control, scripted instructions decreased interest, and had no effect on objective indicators of CR. Study 2 found that instructions designed to induce cognitive dissonance increased logical consistency of responses and survey interest. Instructions to create a sense of hypocrisy increased accuracy on instructed-response items. Study 3 showed that leveraging social exchange theory in survey instructions generally had no effect on CR. Similar results were found for both continuous and dichotomous scoring of indicators of CR across the three studies. Results demonstrate that facets of CR can be influenced via survey design. Future studies are needed to develop a more thorough understanding of best practices in survey design with respect to preventing CR.
- The Impact of Insufficient Effort Responding Detection Methods on Substantive Responses: Results from an Experiment Testing Parameter Invariance
Researchers using survey methods can choose among a variety of methods aimed at detecting insufficient effort responding among the participants in their studies. Some of these methods entail modifying the survey questionnaire by adding bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks. While these methods have been found effective in detecting insufficient effort responding, it remains unclear whether their presence in a questionnaire can affect responses to items of substantive research interest. We conducted an experiment investigating this potential impact in a sample (N = 1,092) of working adults. Adopting an invariance testing approach, we assessed whether employing bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks, with or without warning study participants, respectively, would lead to non-invariant estimates of parameters for substantive variables. Results suggest that, while most parameter estimates were invariant to the use of insufficient effort responding detection methods, the reliability of measurements may be adversely impacted, posing a threat to construct validity and statistical conclusion validity. However, reliability might be maintained when participants are warned at the beginning of the questionnaire. Results also suggest that bogus items may have some advantages over other methods in terms of parameter invariance. We discuss the implications of our findings.