- Workplace Family Support, Parental Satisfaction, and Work–Family Conflict: Individual and Crossover Effects among Dual-Earner Couples
Workplace family support has been regarded as a factor that helps reduce individuals’ work to family conflict (WFC). How this support translates into families’ functioning is still to be determined. In this study, we used a systems perspective to examine (a) how perceptions of workplace family support affect parental satisfaction and consequently reduce WFC and (b) how the perception of support affects partners’ parental satisfaction and WFC in dual-earner couples. A two-wave dyadic data set of dual-earner couples with preschool-aged children (N = 90) was used, and the actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) was applied. Results showed that controlling for WFC, working hours, number and age of children, mothers’ perceptions of workplace family support (time 1) had indirect effects, through mothers’ parental satisfaction (time 1), on their own levels of WFC (time 2) as well as on their partners’ levels of WFC (time 2). Fathers’ perceptions of workplace family support (time 1) had a direct effect on fathers’ parental satisfaction (time 1) and on fathers’ WFC (time 2). These results suggest that in addition to boosting parental well-being, perceptions of a supportive workplace may help reduce the level of WFC for both direct recipients of support and their partners, in particular when support is experienced by mothers, and when these mothers experience heightened parental satisfaction.
- How Learning Goal Orientation Fosters Leadership Recognition in Self-Managed Teams: A Two-Stage Mediation Model
Defined as a mental framework for how individuals interpret and respond to achievement situations, learning goal orientation (LGO) has received increasing attention in organisational research. However, its effect on leadership, especially in contexts absent of formal leadership, remains understudied. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose and test an individual-level two-stage process model of generalised exchange linking LGO and leadership recognition in self-managed teams. Specifically, we posit that learning-oriented individuals will tend to feel safer in self-managed teams, which will enable and sustain their engagement in contextual role behavior. Such behavior, in turn, will be reciprocated with recognition of these individuals as leaders. We use a multiphase, multi-informant approach (n = 287), and we find that felt safety mediates the effect of LGO on contextual role behavior, but that contextual role behavior alone does not mediate the effect of LGO on leadership recognition. LGO has an indirect effect on leadership recognition through the joint mediation of felt safety and contextual role behavior. Our results offer insight on the link between LGO and leadership, with practical implications for people working in self-managed teams.
- Leading to Stimulate Employees' Ideas: A Quantitative Review of Leader–Member Exchange, Employee Voice, Creativity, and Innovative Behavior
Through social exchange, leaders can offer relational support or resources to facilitate employees’ proactive attempts to bring positive change (voice) or novel ideas (creativity) and behaviors (innovative behavior) to their work. We consider these three outcomes under the same nomological network as they all represent employees’ idea contribution to the organisation. The present paper thus meta-analytically reviews the findings of research relating leader–member exchange (LMX) to voice (37 samples), creativity (53 samples), and innovative behavior (29 samples). Results show that LMX positively predicts voice, creativity, and innovative behavior. Moreover, LMX is more strongly related with creativity than with voice or innovative behavior, a significant difference maintained even after controlling for study characteristics that may act as confounding variables. Implications of our findings and directions for future research are also discussed.
- Let's Have Fun Tonight: The Role of Pleasure in Daily Recovery from Work
The present study aims to advance insight into the role of pleasure in the daily effort-recovery cycle. Specifically, using a within-individual study design, we examine the associations between the pleasure employees experience during the evening after work and their recovery state that evening and at various points in time during the next workday. We also investigate associations between employees’ recovery state at the end of the workday and the pleasure they experience during the subsequent evening. Multilevel analyses show that on days when employees experience higher levels of pleasure during the evening after work, they have a more favorable recovery state during that evening. Importantly, the extent to which employees experience pleasure during the evening after work is also positively related to their recovery state during the next workday. Finally, our study shows that on days when employees are in a more unfavorable recovery state at the end of the workday, they experience lower levels of pleasure during the subsequent evening after work. This study increases our insight into the role of pleasure in recovering from work and underlines the importance of engaging in pleasant activities after work.
- Supervisors’ Autonomy Support as a Predictor of Job Performance Trajectories
Studies have shown that supervisors’ autonomy supportive managerial style predicts static job performance and other positive organisational outcomes (Gagné & Deci, 2005). The present study extends these results by investigating the ways in which supervisors’ autonomy support affected job performance trajectories over a period of 5 months in a sample of 68 newly employed sport analysts. Multilevel modeling indicated that performance increases in a decelerated fashion over time. Perceived supervisors’ autonomy support significantly moderated the linear and quadratic performance trajectories. Thus, over time, the performance growth of employees who perceived their supervisors as supportive of their autonomy was steeper and decelerated at a slower rate. The implications are discussed in the light of autonomy support within Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
- The Joint Moderating Effects of Activated Negative Moods and Group Voice Climate on the Relationship between Power Distance Orientation and Employee Voice Behavior
Employees inherently have concerns about the consequences of speaking up, and this is particularly notable for employees with high power distance orientation (PDO). Drawing on ideas from the dual-pathway model of mood and social information processing theory, we propose that activated negative mood and group voice climate can synergistically facilitate high-PDO employees’ voice behaviors. Using a sample from 305 real-estate sales agents in 66 work groups in Taiwan, we examined the joint moderating effects of activated negative mood and group voice climate on employees’ two forms of voice behavior. Our results show that PDO had a negative relationship with promotive voice but did not have a significant relationship with prohibitive voice. Nevertheless, our results show that in the situation where both activated negative mood and group voice climate were high, PDO no longer had a negative relationship with promotive voice, and even had a positive relationship with prohibitive voice. The findings of this study provide theoretical insights for the voice literature and offer practical suggestions for facilitating opinion expression in organisations.
- Culture and Testing Practices: Is the World Flat?
There has been much speculation regarding the influence of cultural norms on the acceptance and use of personnel selection testing. This study examined the cross-level direct effects of four societal cultural variables (performance orientation, future orientation, uncertainty avoidance, and tightness–looseness) on selection practices of organisations in 23 countries. A total of 1,153 HR professionals responded to a survey regarding testing practices in hiring contexts. Overall, little evidence of a connection between cultural practices and selection practices emerged. Implications of these findings for personnel selection and cross-cultural research as well as directions for future work in this area are described.
- Qualitative Research on Work–Family in the Management Field: A Review
Despite a proliferation of work–family literature over the past three decades, studies employing quantitative methodologies significantly outweigh those adopting qualitative approaches. In this paper, we intend to explore the state of qualitative work–family research in the management field and provide a comprehensive profile of the 152 studies included in this review. We synthesise the findings of qualitative work–family studies and provide six themes including parenthood, gender differences, cultural differences, family-friendly policies and non-traditional work arrangements, coping strategies, and under-studied populations. We also describe how findings of qualitative work–family studies compare to those of quantitative studies. The review highlights seven conclusions in the current qualitative literature: a limited number of qualitative endeavours, findings worth further attention, convergent foci, the loose use of work–family terminology, the neglect of a variety of qualitative research approaches, quantitative attitudes towards qualitative research, and insufficient reporting of research methods. In addition, implications for future researchers are discussed.