- Commitment through Employee Volunteering: Accounting for the Motives of Inter-Organisational Volunteers
This study investigated whether participating in inter-organisational (i.e. self-directed, non-strategic) employee volunteering, which is common but rarely studied, is associated with increased organisational commitment. We find evidence for this relation in a sample (N = 385) of employee volunteers and their non-volunteering co-workers. We statistically account for self-selection into the volunteering program by incorporating individual motives for volunteering. Volunteers compared to non-volunteers exhibited relatively stronger motives of expressing altruistic values and avoiding negative affect, but a weaker motive of attaining career advancement. Our findings point to an efficient way of increasing organisational commitment that is relatively inexpensive to implement. They also complement existing research from other employee volunteering contexts, pointing to a possible trade-off between the desired outcomes of effectively managing volunteering programs.
- A Dynamic Model of the Longitudinal Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Supervisor-Rated Job Performance
Job satisfaction and job performance represent two of the most important and popular constructs investigated in organisational psychology. Issues relating to the nature and significance of their relationship has fascinated organisational researchers since the beginning of this discipline. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the direction of plausible influences between these two constructs by using a dynamic latent difference score model (McArdle, ) and a large sample of employees who were followed for five years (N = 1,004). The findings provided support for a reciprocal model of relationships. Satisfied workers generally demonstrated higher job performance over time than did unsatisfied workers. Job performance, however, is a significant contributor of an individual’s satisfaction with their work. The contribution of this study to the literature lies in its use of Latent Difference Score models to more accurately capture the longitudinal dynamics of the relationships between job performance and job satisfaction.
- Looking on the Bright Side: The Positive Role of Organisational Politics in the Relationship between Employee Engagement and Performance at Work
Scholars have largely focused on the negative consequences of organisational politics for employees’ performance. In contrast, we maintain that organisational politics has positive aspects and moderates the relationship between employee engagement and behaviors at work such as knowledge sharing, creativity, proactivity, and adaptivity. Using data from 253 high-tech employees and their supervisors in Israel, our findings demonstrate that perceptions of organisational politics strengthen the relationship between employee engagement and these behaviors. When engaged employees perceive their workplace to be political, they are more proactive, creative, and adaptive, and more likely to share their knowledge with their peers. These findings confirm the challenge/opportunity stressor theory regarding perceptions of organisational politics and suggest that whether politics is viewed as positive or negative depends on the employees’ point of view. For those who are engaged and more actively involved in their jobs, politics can be regarded as a challenge and even an opportunity for obtaining more resources to improve their performance. Implications for the development of theory and practice in this area are discussed.
- A Mental Imagery Intervention to Increase Future Self-Continuity and Reduce Procrastination
This research examined how mental imagery practice can increase future self-continuity to reduce procrastination. A total of 193 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a present-focused meditation or to a future self-focused mental imagery condition. Participants in both conditions were asked to listen to their respective audio recording twice per week for four consecutive weeks and to complete a pre-intervention, half-point, and post-intervention questionnaire. At the four-week mark, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both future self-continuity and empathic perspective taking were significantly higher for the mental imagery condition than the meditation condition. While vividness of future self moderated change in future self-continuity, affective empathy for future self mediated the relation between vividness of future self and future self-continuity. Lastly, only empathic perspective taking was a significant moderator of change in procrastination across time. The influence of empathy and future self-continuity on procrastination is discussed.
- Rewards and Creativity: Past, Present, and Future
Research on the effects of rewards on creativity has resulted in hundreds of empirical studies and several reviews of the reward–creativity relationship (RCR). Most reviews are retrospective in nature. They have quantitatively summarised and integrated previous research findings, but have largely overlooked the need for a theoretical framework to guide future research. The current systematic review of this literature intends to bridge this gap, based on the findings of 329 papers and book chapters. Our review summarises the theoretical developments in reward–creativity (RC) research, and classifies the literature in three distinct phases, i.e. the emergence of the cognitive perspective; behavioural rebuttal, and convergence. The paper identifies three important gaps in the existing RC literature: (1) the moderating effects of individual, group, organisational, and national-level factors; (2) the mediating role of cognitive and affective states; and (3) the lack of consideration of creativity as a multidimensional construct. Based on these gaps, the paper presents a four-factor framework to guide future RC research. It identifies potential moderators and mediators of the RCR, and draws attention to creativity as a multidimensional construct.
- Issue Information
- Flow at Work and Basic Psychological Needs: Effects on Well-Being
Recent conceptual work draws meaningful distinctions between experiential and declarative well-being (Shmotkin, ), but little has been done to apply such distinctions in organisational psychology. We use this framework to integrate self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, ) and flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, ), leading to hypotheses proposing that flow experiences at work (experiential well-being) lead to declarative well-being outcomes through their influence on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for competence and autonomy. Findings from a two-week experience sampling study of full-time employees offer support for our hypotheses. This study also shows support for the moderating effect of individual differences in personality on the relationships among flow experiences, need fulfillment, and declarative well-being.
- Toward an Integration of Goal Setting Theory and the Automaticity Model
Two laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the extent to which goal setting theory explains the effects of goals that are primed in the subconscious on task performance. The first experiment examined the effect on performance of three primes that connote the difficulty levels of a goal in the subconscious. Participants (n = 91) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they were primed with either a photograph of a person lifting 20 pounds (easy goal), 200 pounds (moderately difficult goal), or 400 pounds (difficult goal). Following a filler task, participants were asked to “press as hard as you can” on a digital weight scale. Participants who were primed with the difficult goal exerted more effort than those who were primed with the moderate or easy goal. The second experiment examined whether choice of goal difficulty level can be primed. Participants (n = 133) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Those primed with a difficult goal consciously chose to set a more difficult goal on a brainstorming task than those who were primed with an easier goal. Similarly, their performance was significantly higher. Conscientiousness moderated the subconscious goal–performance relationship while the self-set conscious goal partially mediated the subconscious goal–performance relationship.