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Applied and Preventive Psychology

Applied and Preventive Psychology

  • Editorial Board
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4









  • Worry and the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic synthesis of specificity to GAD
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): Bunmi O. Olatunji, Kate B. Wolitzky-Taylor, Craig N. Sawchuk, Bethany G. Ciesielski

    Although worry is central to the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), it is also commonly observed in other anxiety disorders. In this meta-analytic review, we empirically evaluated the extent to which worry is specific to GAD relative to patients with other anxiety disorders, those with other psychiatric disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls. A total of 47 published studies (N =8,410) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect size indicating greater severity/frequency of worry, meta-worry, and domains of worry among anxiety disorder patients v. nonpsychiatric controls (d =1.64). In contrast to the many differences emerging from comparisons between anxiety disordered patients and nonpsychiatric controls, when anxiety disordered patients were compared to people with other psychiatric disorders they differed only on severity/frequency and not on meta-worry or domains of worry. A large effect size indicating greater severity/frequency of worry, meta-worry, and domains of worry among patients with GAD v. nonpsychiatric controls was also found (d =2.05). However, differences between GAD and those with other psychiatric disorders also emerged for severity/frequency of worry. GAD was associated with greater worry difficulties than other anxiety disorders, which generally did not differ from those with other psychiatric disorders and each other. The implications of these findings for conceptualizing worry in GAD and other anxiety disorders, and the potentially moderating effects of age and gender are discussed.

    Highlights

    ► There is greater severity/frequency of worry, meta-worry, and domains of worry among anxiety disorder patients relative to nonpsychiatric controls. ► GAD is associated with greater worry than other anxiety disorders, which generally do not differ from those with other psychiatric disorders and each other. ► Differences between those with GAD and those with other psychiatric disorders emerge only for the severity/frequency of worry.




  • The cultural theory and model of suicide
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): Joyce P. Chu, Peter Goldblum, Rebecca Floyd, Bruce Bongar

    A growing body of research has demonstrated important variations in the prevalence, nature, and correlates of suicide across ethnic and sexual minority groups. Despite these developments, existing clinical and research approaches to suicide assessment and prevention have not incorporated cultural variations in any systematic way. In addition, theoretical models of suicide have been largely devoid of cultural influence. The current report presents a comprehensive analysis of literature describing the relationship between cultural factors and suicide in three major ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos) and LGBTQ 1 “LGBTQ” populations are also referred to as “sexual minorities.” LGBTQ is an abbreviation for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender or transsexual individuals, and people questioning their sexual orientation. sexual minority groups. We utilized an inductive approach to synthesize this variegated body of research into four factors that account for 95% of existing culturally specific risk data: cultural sanctions, idioms of distress, minority stress, and social discord. These four cultural factors are then integrated into a theoretical framework: the Cultural Model of Suicide. Three theoretical principles emerge: (1) culture affects the types of stressors that lead to suicide; (2) cultural meanings associated with stressors and suicide affect the development of suicidal tendencies, one’s threshold of tolerance for psychological pain, and subsequent suicidal acts; and (3) culture affects how suicidal thoughts, intent, plans, and attempts are expressed. The Cultural Model of Suicide provides an empirically guided cohesive approach that can inform culturally competent suicide assessment and prevention efforts in future research and clinical practice. Including both ethnic and sexual minorities in our investigations ensures advancement along a multiple identities perspective.

    Highlights

    ► This study performs a literature analysis of culturally specific suicide risk in ethnic and sexual minority groups. ► Four factors accounted for 95% of culturally specific risk data: cultural sanctions, idioms of distress, minority stress, and social discord. ► The four cultural suicide risk factors are integrated into a theoretical framework: the Cultural Model of Suicide. ► Theoretical principles include: cultural meanings impact the suicide developmental process, culture affects suicide-precipitating stressors, and culture affects suicide expression. ► The Cultural Model of Suicide can inform culturally competent suicide assessment and prevention efforts.




  • Reducing the stigma of mental disorders at work: A review of current workplace anti-stigma intervention programs
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): Andrew C.H. Szeto, Keith S. Dobson

    Stigma has been described as one of the largest barriers for those who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder, with negative consequences impacting all facets of life, including the workplace. Although many population-based anti-stigma initiatives exist, the need for workplace interventions is being recognized, particularly as the financial costs of mental disorders in the workplace mount. Specific workplace-focused programs are emerging to address this need. The present paper describes efforts to reduce the stigma related to mental disorders in the workplace. Following the review, suggestions are made for future workplace anti-stigma interventions, as well as a discussion of considerations for researchers who evaluate such programs.

    Highlights

    ► This paper reviews various workplace anti-stigma initiatives from around the world. ► More scientific evaluations of workplace anti-stigma initiatives are needed. ► Future program evaluators should focus more on experimental designs, behavioural outcomes, and the moderating effects of individual difference variables. ► Future program developers could enhance program efficacy by changing norms and culture around mental disorders within an organization.




  • Improving prevention of depression and anxiety disorders: Repetitive negative thinking as a promising target
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): Maurice Topper, Paul M.G. Emmelkamp, Thomas Ehring

    Prevention of depression and anxiety disorders is widely acknowledged as an important health care investment. However, existing preventive interventions have only shown modest effects. In order to improve the efficacy of prevention of depression and anxiety disorders, a number of authors have suggested that it is promising to focus on selective prevention programs that are offered to individuals scoring high on clearly established risk factors, whereby the preventive intervention then specifically targets these risk variables. This review presents repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination) as a promising target for the prevention of depression and anxiety disorders.





  • Moving the field of prevention from science to service: Integrating evidence-based preventive interventions into community practice through adapted and adaptive models
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): Gerald J. August, Abigail Gewirtz, George M. Realmuto

    The article addresses the adaptation of evidence-based prevention and positive youth development programs for community use. Two complementary approaches for adapting programs are described. In the “adapted” approach, programs are modified to accommodate the culture, climate, and operations of the organization delivering the program. In the “adaptive” approach, programs are modified to accommodate the characteristics, needs and preferences of the individual or family receiving the program. Two examples are provided that illustrate how both adapted and adaptive intervention strategies have been incorporated by community practitioners into the implementation of the Early Risers conduct problems prevention program.





  • The Army National Guard in OIF/OEF: Relationships among combat exposure, postdeployment stressors, social support, and risk behaviors
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4

    Author(s): James Griffith, Courtney West

    With the continued operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, studies of the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and related symptoms are now common. However, lacking is how these symptoms relate to precipitating conditions and the mitigating effects of social support on these symptoms. This is particularly relevant for reserve military personnel, who have been shown to be greater at-risk for postdeployment problems. The present study examined questionnaire data obtained from Army National Guard (ARNG) units immediately after their return from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan during 2010 (N =4329 soldiers in 50 units). Findings showed few soldiers displayed risk behaviors (i.e., daily alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, suicide thoughts, and physically threatening others) during and after deployment. Those most likely to have more postdeployment risk behaviors were also those who showed more risk behaviors during deployment. A substantial percentage of soldiers reported combat exposure, postdeployment negative emotions, and postdeployment loss of a personal relationship. These reported outcomes were all related to increased risk behaviors after deployment. The buffering effect of social support on postdeployment risk behaviors was equally evident when data were examined individually and when grouped by unit memberships. Implications of findings for future research, practice, and policies are discussed.

    Highlights

    ► The present study examined questionnaire data obtained from Army National Guard (ARNG) units immediately after their return from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan during 2010 (N =4329 soldiers in 50 units). ► Findings showed few soldiers displayed risk behaviors (i.e., daily alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, suicide thoughts, and physically threatening others) during and after deployment. ► A substantial percentage reported combat exposure, postdeployment negative emotions, and loss of a personal relationship. ► The buffering effect of social support on postdeployment risk behaviors was equally evident when data were examined individually and when grouped by unit memberships.




  • Author index (Volume 14 (2010))
    Publication date: June 2010
    Source:Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 14, Issues 1–4









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